Session 9 (Chromosomes, Cell Cycle & Cell Division)

Session 9 (Chromosomes, Cell Cycle & Cell Division)...

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MCB 181 Study Session 9 (Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division) Apoptosis Cell Division
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Learning Goals for Study Session 9 (Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division) Understand the role of cell division in the growth and reproduction of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Briefly describe each of the periods of the cell cycle and indicate how and why progression through the cycle is regulated. Distinguish among binary fission, mitosis and cytokinesis. Understand the relationship between sequences of nucleotides in DNA, genes, chromosomes and chromatids. Briefly describe the structure of a chromosome as it is about to enter into mitosis or meiosis. Name, briefly describe and diagram the phases of mitosis and meiosis. Be able to describe the differences between asexual and sexual reproduction and the genetic consequences of each type of reproduction. Be able to distinguish between stages of mitosis and meiosis with emphasis on the behavior of homologous chromosomes during the two processes. Clearly state the differences between mitosis and meiosis with respect to purpose, outcome, and location in the body of a multicellular organism. Be able to distinguish between causes and functions of necrosis and apoptosis.
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All living organisms undergo cell division to produce new cells for growth, repair and reproduction! Single celled organisms use cell division to reproduce themselves. Multicellular organisms use cell division to produce new cells for growth and repair of tissues and for production of gametes for sexual reproduction. Growth and development in multicellular organisms also requires that certain cells undergo programmed death by a processes called apoptosis. In this study session we consider how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells divide and the role of apoptosis in eliminating unwanted cells during development or for disease prevention.
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Four events are required for a cell to divide. 1. A reproductive signal from inside or outside of the cell triggers a cell to divide. 2. The genetic material (DNA) and certain organelles are replicated. 3. Replicated DNA molecules must be precisely distributed ( binary fission, mitosis, or meiosis ) to each of the two new cells. 4. Production of membranes (and for certain organisms, cell wall material) is needed to separate the two new cells by a process called cytokinesis . These four events differ somewhat in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
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Cell reproduction in prokaryotes occurs by an asexual process called binary fission. External factors (e.g. nutrient supply) control initiation and rate of cell reproduction. The chromosome of most prokaryotes is a circular DNA molecule that is much larger than the circumference of the cell. The circular chromosome is folded many times on itself. The DNA molecule (chromosome) is
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Session 9 (Chromosomes, Cell Cycle & Cell Division)...

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