Lab 1 Report .docx - 1 Synthesis and Analysis of Soap...

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1 Synthesis and Analysis of Soap Kynesha Nealy December 6, 2019
Running head: SOAP SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS 2 Abstract : By producing soaps from different composition of oils, this experiment will help us to demonstrate the relationship of the fatty acid percent and basic nature of soaps. Soap is known to be amphiphilic, which means it can be a bridge between polar and nonpolar molecules. To create our soaps, we used canola, corn, coconut, and a fourth one of your choice. By creating different soaps within this experiment, it will allow us to physically see changes in appearance, composition, as well as test for pH and cleaning properties. I believe that the detergent will clean more effectively, since it can deal with tougher substances. I think the coconut oil will produce a soap that can compare to detergent. At the end, we will be able to see how each variation is efficient, as well as how it compares to detergent. This lab also allowed us to investigate the process of saponification and base hydrolysis reactions.
Running head: SOAP SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS 3 Introduction and Background : Soaps are made of potassium and sodium salts that have a long fatty acid chain, otherwise known as hydrocarbon chain. The carboxylate ion is polar, while the two ends of the chain are nonpolar. Soap molecules are known to be good solvent for cleaning as the nonpolar tails are used to dissolve grease, while the polar head end is dissolves in water and allows the greasy molecules to be washed away. The head of the chain is a carboxylate ion, which is polar and hydrophilic. This means that the head has a strong affinity for water and can easily dissolve. The long carbon chain is the nonpolar hydrophobic portion of the soap molecule. Soaps can dissolve in water by

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