310lectures7and8cnsdepressantslides

310lectures7and8cnsdepressantslides - CNS DEPRESSANTS...

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1 1 CNS DEPRESSANTS: GENERAL CNS DEPRESSANTS AND ALCOHOL Lara Collier, Ph.D. 2/9/10 and 2/11/10 2 General Lecture Outline 1) General properties of CNS Depressants 2) Alcohol 3) Chronic alcohol exposure 4) Barbiturates 5) Non-barbiturate sedative-hypnotics 3 CNS DEPRESSANTS AND ALCOHOL Included in this group are: alcohol (ethanol/ethyl alcohol) barbiturates non-barbiturate sedative/hypnotics benzodiazepines (e.g. Diazepam (Valium)) gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) gamma butyrolactone (GBL) 1,4-butanediol (BD) most inhalants general anesthetics antiepileptic drugs Terms “sedative”, “tranquilizer”, “hypnotic” can be applied to these drugs
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2 4 GENERAL EFFECTS OF CNS DEPRESSANTS -Sedative effects Reduce anxiety (anxiolytic) and exert calming effect Can produce blackouts and amnesia like Alzheimer’s -This is also called Sedative-Induced Brain Dysfunction -Individuals with natural loss of neuronal functioning are adversely affected Example: elderly -Hypnotic effects They produce drowsiness and sleep onset 5 DOSE RELATED PHYSICAL AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS -Low dose Disinhibition (relief from anxiety), small fall in BP, loss of motor coordination -Moderate dose Progressive depression of respiration, sleep, muscle relaxation -High dose Amnesia, unconsciousness, profound drop in BP, hypothermia, coma and ultimately death from respiration and cardiac depression 6 PHARMACODYNAMICS: SITES OF ACTION The nature of the sites of action of these drugs is still considered complex and controversial -Originally hypothesized that these drugs inhibit polysynaptic, diffuse brain-stem neuronal pathways -Current model Reduce glutamate excitatory activity - This may account for amnestic properties Augment GABA inhibitory activity - These agents do this in different ways
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3 7 FEATURES OF ABUSED GENERAL CNS DEPRESSANTS -Cause intoxication (disinhibition euphoria; anxiolytic/antidepressant effects; slurred speech; uncoordination, ataxia, stupor) -Overdoses serious: sometimes referred to as “poisoning” (loss of consciousness, coma, respiratory depression, death) Do you know what to do if you suspect someone has alcohol poisoning? http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/OtherAlcoholInformation/FactsAboutAlcoholPo isoning.pdf 8 FEATURES OF ABUSED GENERAL CNS DEPRESSANTS contd -Tolerance (and cross-tolerance) can develop (Significant to inebriation, but much less tolerance to lethal respiratory depression) 1) Pharmacokinetic 2) Pharmacodynamic -Dependence (and cross-dependence) can develop 1) Physical dependence and abstinence syndrome Withdrawal signs ranging from sleep disturbances to life-threatening convulsions 2) Psychological dependence Follows from positive reinforcement effect of the drugs 9 ADVERSE REACTIONS 1. Side effects and toxicity 2. Physical and/or psychological dependence 3. Pregnancy effects
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4 10 General Lecture Outline 1) General properties of CNS Depressants 2) Alcohol 3) Chronic alcohol exposure 4) Barbiturates 5) Non-barbiturate sedative-hypnotics
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2010 for the course PHARM 310 taught by Professor Marker during the Spring '10 term at University of Wisconsin.

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310lectures7and8cnsdepressantslides - CNS DEPRESSANTS...

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