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lecture_#2(pp) - Lecture 2: What is a cell? Chemistry and...

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1 Lecture 2: What is a cell? Chemistry and Biology Basics Cellular basis of life Basic unit of life is a “cell” Living things can be one cell or many cells –human body is made of about 10 14 (or 100,000,000,000,000) cells Living things have the ability to reproduce Hereditary information: DNA Living things have the ability to extract energy and “building materials” from the environment Organism separates self from environment Organism regulates what can move between the environment and the interior of cell(s) Organism uses materials from the environment to conduct metabolism, grow, and reproduce Living things create and maintain order . Insert Fig. 2-33 from MBC 2002 Viral coat proteins sperm tail x-section pollen grain butterfy wing sunfower Single cel each scale is single cel mil ions of cel s
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2 The composition of living things is very different than the physical environment Composition of a cell (by weight) Most of a cell ʼ s “dry weight” derives from 4 families of organic biomolecules organic molecules = Carbon (C) based inorganic molecules = Not carbon based
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3 Biomolecules Defnition: organic chemical compounds that cannot be broken into smaller units without breaking covalent bonds. Examples: hormones, DNA, neurotransmitters Common Types: Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates Insert Figure 1.3 Important chemical Forces For biomolecules Molecules are made oF atoms Defnition: smallest chemical entities Examples: Carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), sulFur (S), phosphorus (P) Atoms may Form stable interactions called bonds Types: ionic, covalent, hydrogen Ionic Bonds Defnition: relatively weak bonds occurring between atoms that can easily become charged. Charged atoms are called ions . Classic example oF solid crystal compound Formed by ionic bonds is sodium chloride (table salt). Water-soluble Each positive charge (sodium ion) is surrounded by a “shield” oF negative charges (chloride ions) and vice versa. Overall, each charge is negated so that the sodium chloride crystals have no net charge.
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4 Covalent Bond Defnition: strong chemical bonds made by the sharing oF a pair oF electrons between two atoms (vs. donating
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2010 for the course PHARM 310 taught by Professor Marker during the Spring '10 term at Wisconsin.

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lecture_#2(pp) - Lecture 2: What is a cell? Chemistry and...

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