lecture_#2_notes

lecture_#2_notes - Lecture #2 Outline Pharmaceutical...

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Lecture #2 Outline Pharmaceutical Sciences 310 Introduction to Pharmacology: Drugs and Their Actions Lecture #2: What is a cell? lecturer: Paul Marker The goals of this lecture are to familiarize students with the basic concepts of the field of biology and chemistry. Basic terminology will be introduced, and specific examples will be used to illustrate the types of issues in biology and chemistry that are relevant for understanding the pharmacology of drugs discussed in the course. I. Living things share common features. a. Cells are the basic building block for living things. Some living things are made of a single cell (example = bacteria) while other living things are made of many cells (example = humans are made of approximately 10 14 cells). b. All living things have the ability to reproduce. The information needed to reproduce from generation-to-generation is contained in DNA that is present in all living things. c. All living things have the ability to extract energy and the basic building blocks of life from the environment. (1) Organism separates self from the environment. (2) Organism regulates what can move between the environment and the interior of cells. (3) Organism uses materials from the environment to conduct metabolism, grow, and reproduce. d. Living things are primarily made of Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), and Oxygen (O) which is chemically very different the non-living physical environment. (1) By weight, cells are about 70% water (H 2 O). (2) The remaining 30% (called the dry weight) is composed of a variety of chemicals. (3) Most of the dry weight is made of organic macromolecules (large carbon-based chemical compounds) including phospholipids, DNA, RNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. II. Biomolecules and the basic chemistry of life. a. Biomolecules is a general term that describes the carbon-based organic molecules that make up living things.
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b. Biomolecules include small building blocks and larger macromolecules of several types. (1) sugars (building block) are assembled into larger polysaccharides (2) fatty acids (building block) are assembled into larger fats, lipids , and membranes (3) amino acids (building block) are assembled into larger proteins (4) nucleotides (building block) are assembled into larger nucleic acids including DNA and RNA c. The behavior of biomolecules is governed by chemical forces.
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lecture_#2_notes - Lecture #2 Outline Pharmaceutical...

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