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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1 Metalloids- B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te Diatomics- H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I CHAPTER 2 When passed between charged plates, alpha (2+) and beta (1-) are deflected caused charged, not gamma Evidence of electrons: Thomson- cathode ray of negative charge carrying electricity produced from metal electrodes Millikan- calculating electron charge by suspending charged oil drops Evidence of nucleus Rutherford: most, but not all alpha particle went thru gold sheet, showing something small, dense and charged in center Chadwick found neutrons Angstrom= 1 * 10^-10 meter CHAPTER 3 Constitutional/Structural Isomer- same molecular formula, differential order of atom bonding Methane, ethane, propane- one structure. Butane- 2 isomers- butane and methylpropane Isomer count- 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, 18, 35, 75-ic for higher charge (Fe3+), -ous for lower charge (Fe2+) Ionic solids held in orderly array called crystal lattice Ionic Compound Properties Crystalline, hard, brittle solids High Melting and Boiling Points (higher charges increase attraction and m.p and b.p) Only good conductors when molten Poor heat conductors Many water soluble Can be cleaved -> (1. Force causes one layer of ions to shift, bringing positive-positive and negative-negative ions together. This causes strong repulsion force to cause splitting.) CHAPTER 4 Types of Reactions Combination (X+Y->XY) Oxygen and halogens are reactive so undergo combination rxns easily Decomposition (XY->X+Y) Metal carbonates decompose to metal oxides plus carbon dioxide Displacement (X + YZ-> XZ + Y) Exchange (XY + WZ-> XW + YZ) Characterized by formation of: solid, molecular compound, or gas CHAPTER 5 Know Solubility Rules Strong Acids: HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HCLO4, HBr, H I Strong Bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2 Gas Forming Rxn: metal carbonate + acid -> salt + H2CO3 -> salt +water + co2 metal sulfites + acid-> salt + h2s metal sulfites + acid-> salt + h2so3-> salt + h2o + so2 Common Oxidizing Agents: O2, F2(strongest halogen), Cl2, Br2, I2, H2O2, HNO3, Cr2o7-2, MnO4- Common Reducing Agents: H2, C, Metals Activity Series: metals higher up will displace lower ones in compound (Zn higher than Cu-> Zn+CuO- >Cu+ZnO) Higher up metals are better reducing agents, more willing lose electrons CHAPTER 7 =wavelength, v=frequency brightness/intensity based on amplitude v =2.998E8 m/s Early scientists couldnt predict emission spectrum of heated wires Planck guessed atom emits radiation in packets having minimum amounts of energy (smallest packet=quantum) E quantum =hv radition h=6.626e-34 J*s Thus: E=hc/ Einstein and Photoelectric Effect PE Effect- certain metals emits es when illuminated w/ certain light wavelengths For each metal, there is threshold below where no pe effect is observed (no matter how bright) Eisntein said- quanta=massless light particles called photons Emin required to remove electron from metal, photons need high enough frequencies Visible light range (400 violet-700red) Bohr said: (to explain line emission spectrum...
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