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ch02a - Chapter 2 Part 1 Cardiology Part 1 Cardiovascular...

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Chapter 2, Part 1 Cardiology
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Part 1: Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology, ECG Monitoring, and Dysrhythmia Analysis
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Topics Cardiovascular Anatomy Cardiac Physiology Electrocardiographic Monitoring Dysrhythmias
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Cardiovascular Anatomy (1 of 6) Anatomy of the Heart Location and Size of the Heart
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Cardiovascular Anatomy (2 of 6) Tissue Layers Endocardium Myocardium Pericardium Visceral pericardium Parietal pericardium Pericardial fluid
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Cardiovascular Anatomy (3 of 6) Valves Atrioventricular Valves Tricuspid valve Mitral valve Semilunar Valves Aortic valve Pulmonic valve Chordae Tendonae
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Cardiovascular Anatomy (4 of 6) Blood Flow From the Body Right atrium To the Lungs Right ventricle From the Lungs Left atrium To the Body Left ventricle
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Cardiovascular Anatomy * (5 of 6) Coronary Circulation Collateral Circulation (alternative pathways)
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Cardiovascular Anatomy (6 of 6) Anatomy of the Peripheral Circulation General Structure Poiseuille’s law Arterial System Arteries, arterioles, and capillaries Venous System Capillaries, venules, and veins
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Poiseuille’s Law Blood flows through a vessel is directed proportional to the radiu
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Cardiac Physiology (1 of 5) The Cardiac Cycle Diastole Systole Ejection fraction Stroke volume Preload Cardiac contractility Afterload Cardiac output
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Definitions * Ejection fraction - ratio of blood pumped from the ventricle to the amount remaining at the end of diastole Stroke volume - the amount of blood ejected by the ventricle in one contraction. Avg. is 60 -100ml (approx. 2/3 the total volume of the left ventricle) Preload - the pressure within the ventricles at the end of diastole Afterload - the resistance against which the heart must pump Cardiac Output - the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
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Cardiac Physiology (2 of 5) Nervous Control of the Heart Sympathetic Parasympathetic Autonomic Control of the Heart Chronotropy (rate) Inotropy (force) Dromotropy (speed of conduction) Role of Electrolytes
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Nervous System Cardiac Effect Sympathetic - increases heart rate and conduction force via the cardiac plexus by norepinephrine action on the beta-1 receptors Parasympathetic - slows heart rate and atrioventricular conduction via the vagus nerve by acetylcholine action on the SA and AV tissue (making them less excitable)
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Roles of Electrolytes in Cardiac Function Na+ =Deporlarization Ca++ = Depolarization and contraction K+ = Repolarization Cl- = Alters timing of voltage changes during action potential
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Cardiac Physiology (3 of 5) Electrophysiology Cardiac Muscle Atrial Ventricular Excitatory and conductive fibers Intercalated discs Syncytium (group of cells that function as a unit) Atrioventricular bundle (route of conduction from atria to ventricles) Depolarization
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Cardiac Physiology (4 of 5) Cardiac Depolarization Resting Potential Action Potential Repolarization
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