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Main oral board guid

Main oral board guid - Acid/Base balance Bicarbonate system...

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Acid/Base balance & Bicarbonate system The acid base balance system is a way the body maintains homeostasis of PH levels. The PH level is the measure of hydrogen ions in the blood stream (normal PH range is 7.35-7.45). Hydrogen is a natural by-product of cellular metabolism, and is very acidic leaving the body very acidotic. The excess hydrogen must be eliminated and is done the fastest way through the Bicarbonate Buffer System. 1. Hydrogen binds w/ the bicarbonate ion which converts it to carbonic acid. This being a weaker acid which is better tolerated by the body, but still must be broken down. 2. Carbonic Acid will eventually break down but is done faster with an enzyme called Carbonic Anhydrase. 3. H20 & CO2 are the byproducts of the carbonic acid being broke down. 4. CO2 is eliminated through the respiratory system, and the H2O is eliminated through the kidneys. If the body does not have enough hydrogen then the body becomes alkalotic and the body then can turn H2O and CO2 into carbonic acid and then into hydrogen and bicarb. (it reverses). Acidosis/ Alkalosis Respiratory Acidosis- Caused by retention of CO2 due to a decrease in respirations, so our bodies chemo-receptors recognize increases in CO2 levels, and increase our respiratory drive to blow off excess CO2. Respiratory Alkalosis- Caused by excess elimination of CO2 due to increase in respirations, so our chemo- receptors recognize low levels of CO2 and decrease respirations. Metabolic Acidosis- Production of lactic acid, or from dehydration, or from renal failure. Body increases respirations and or can give sodium bicarbonate to break down acid. Metabolic Alkalosis- Caused by excess vomiting, Administration of diuretics, and or overload of sodium bicarbonate. Must treat underlying cause, and body may decrease in respirations and increase in sodium bicarbonate excretion through the kidney tubules to eliminate the excess bicarb. Upper GI bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz Causes of upper GI bleed- Esophageal Varices- are extremely dilated sub-mucosal veins in the esophagus due to portal hypertension caused by Cirrhosis of the liver(scaring of the liver due to Alcoholism, and Hepatitis C)leading to liver failure Esophagitis - is inflammation of the esophagus due to acid refluxs Esophageal cancer- tumors in the esophagus Esophageal ulcers Gastric ulcers - known as peptic ulcers which are very acidic. Stomach cancer- tumors Gastroenteritis- is inflammation of the gastric mucosa and intestines.
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Gastric varices- are dilated submucosal veins in the stomach caused by portal hypertension wich is caused by a complication of cirrhosis. Duodenum ulcers- is a hollow jointed tube connecting the stomach to the jejunum that breaks down food in the small intestine. This also can get ulcers that are very acidic.
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