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oral board review

oral board review - Inflammatory Response There are 4...

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Inflammatory Response There are 4 functions of inflammation : destroy and remove unwanted substances, wall off the area, stimulate the immune response, and promote healing. Begins within seconds of injury or invasion by a pathogen. It is non specific attacking any invader by surrounding it with cells and fluids to isolate, destroy and eliminate it. Blood vessels contract and dilate to move additional blood to the site. Then vascular permeability increases white cells and plasma protein move through capillary walls and into the tissue to repair it. Mast cells are the chief activators of the inflammatory response. Mast cells activate the the inflammatory response through degranulation and synthesis. During degranulation vasoactive amines (dialate postcapillary sphincters increasing blood flow to the injury site)and chemotactic factors (chemicals that attract WBC to the area) are released It attempts to localize the damage while destroying the source at the same time repairing tissue. If bacteria are present responding macrophages(large WBC’s that ingest and destroy invading organisms) them and tissue repair begins. Immune response Internal response Develops slowly, and is specific meaning that it develops a specialized response for each different invader. Attacks the invader with a single cell type. Lymphocytes which are one type of leukocyte or WBC. The immune system detects antigens as being foreign and responds to produce substances called antibodies that combine with the antigens to control or destroy them. There are two phases to the immune response primary and secondary. The primary response is the initial development of antibodies in response to the first exposure to an antigen. The secondary response is a fast strong response of the immune system to repeated exposures to an antigen. Osmotic diuresis An increase in urination and dehydration. Osmosis is when water molecules cross a semi permeable membrane to balance the concentrations. When glucose spills into urine the osmotic pressure,rises inside the kidney tubule to a level higher than that of blood. Water follows glucose into the urine to cause water loss or osmotic diuresis, which is the charachteristic of untreated diabetes. Whenever osmotic diuresis occurs you also have an increase of excretion of potassium this can lead to hypokalemia and possible cardiac arrythmias. Cushings triad Is an indicator of ICP. And is seen in the following vital signs. Increased blood pressure decreased pulse and irregular respirations. These are normally seen in the early stages. If allowed to progress you will see a fall in blood pressure and the pulse rate will increase. You
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may also see dysrythmias. Treatment will include o2 no fluids semi fowlers position rapid transport Becks triad JVD, distant heart tones, hypotension, indicative of pericardial tamponade, but may not be recognized early in the progression. Pericardial tamponade is a restriction to cardiac filling caused by blood within the pericardial sac. Tension pneumo
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oral board review - Inflammatory Response There are 4...

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