ch04 - Chapter 4 Endocrinology Topics Anatomy and...

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Chapter 4 Endocrinology
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Topics Anatomy and Physiology Endocrine Disorders and Emergencies
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Anatomy and Physiology Endocrine Glands Have systemic effects. Act on specific target tissues in specific ways. May have single or multiple targets. Disorders Disorders result from over- or underproduction of hormone(s).
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Important terms Hormones - a chemical substance released by a gland that controls or affects processes in other glands or body system Endocrine glands - secretes chemicals substances directly into the blood (inside) Exocrine gland - secretes chemicals into the tissue (outside)
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Hormones of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
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Hypothalamus Located Deep within the Cerebrum Some cells relay messages from the autonomic nervous system to the central nervous system. Other cells respond as gland cells to release hormones.
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Posterior Pituitary* Diabetes Insipidus and ADH Oxytocin and Pregnancy
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Diabetes Insipidus Drastically increased urine volume production (15-20 L/Day) due to inadequate secretion of Andidiuretic Hormone (ADH) ADH causes the kidneys to reabsorb water from the blood
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Anterior Pituitary
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Thyroid Gland Hyperthyroidism (excessive Thyronine and Triiodothyronine production) and Hypothyroidism (deficient production)
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Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid Glands Small, pea-shaped glands, located in the neck near the thyroid Typically 4 individual glands Regulate the level of calcium in the body
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Thymus Gland
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Pancreas (1 of 2) Combination Organ Exocrine tissues called acini secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine. Endocrine tissues secrete hormones. Glycogenolysis. Gluconeogenesis.
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Important Terms* Glycogenolysis - The process of breaking glycogen (the stored form of sugar) into glucose (the blood borne and unstable form of sugar). This process occurs when glucagon is released into the blood by the alpha cells in the pancreas Action occurs primarily in the liver, and somewhat in the muscles Causes an increase in blood glucose levels
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Important Term* Gluconeogenesis - Body proteins and fats are broken down into glucose via chemical interactions in the liver. This process is also stimulated by glucagon Causes an increase in blood glucose
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Pancreas (2 of 2) Produces 3 types of cells: Alpha (α) - produce glucagon Beta (β) - produce insulin Delta (δ) - produce somatostatin
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Alpha Cells (α)* Produce glucagon and stimulate the release of glucagon and glycogen stores Promote gluconeogenesis Increase blood glucose level
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Beta Cells (β)* Stimulate the release of insulin Lower the blood glucose level
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Delta Cells (δ)* Produce somatostatin Inhibit glucagon Inhibit insulin
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The Relationship Increased glucagon causes increased blood glucose Increased insulin causes decreased blood glucose And vise versa
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Adrenal Glands (1 of 2) Adrenal Medulla Inner segment of adrenal gland
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2010 for the course PAR 100 taught by Professor Alan during the Spring '10 term at Miramar College.

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ch04 - Chapter 4 Endocrinology Topics Anatomy and...

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