ch10 - Chapter 10 Environmental Emergencies Topics w...

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Chapter 10 Environmental Emergencies
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Topics w Pathophysiology of Heat and Cold Disorders w Heat Disorders w Cold Disorders w Near-Drowning and Drowning w Diving Emergencies w High-Altitude Illness w Nuclear Radiation
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Environmental Emergencies w Risk Factors w Age w Poor General Health w Fatigue w Predisposing Medical Conditions w Medications w Homeostasis w Tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment
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Pathophysiology of Heat and Cold Disorders (1 of 4) w Mechanisms of Heat Gain and Loss w Thermal Gradient the difference in temp between the environment and the body w Wind w Relative humidity w Thermogenesis ( heat generation) w Work-Induced w Thermoregulatory - endocrine system cause in immediate increase in metabolism, which increases heat production w Diet-Induced - heat is produced as a byproduct of the digestive process
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w Thermolysis w Conduction w Convection w Radiation w Evaporation w Respiration Pathophysiology of Heat and Cold Disorders* (2 of 4)
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w Thermoregulation w The maintenance or regulation of temp. w Body Temperature w Core temperature w Peripheral temperature w The Hypothalamus w Uses “negative feedback” to turn off temp. control mechanisms w Heat Dissipation w Sweating, vasodilation w Heat Conservation w Shivering, Pathophysiology of Heat and Cold Disorders * (3 of 4)
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Pathophysiology of Heat and Cold Disorders (4 of 4) w Thermoregulation (cont.) w Thermoreceptors w Peripheral thermoreceptors (in the skin) w Central thermoreceptors ( in the spinal cord, abdomen and great veins). w Metabolic Rate w Basic metabolic rate w Body is completely at rest w Exertional metabolic rate w Metabolism necessary at times when additional energy is needed and used w Core temperature measurement w REQUIRED FOR ACCURATE ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES
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Heat Disorders (1 of 4) w Hyperthermia w Signs of Thermolysis w Diaphoresis, increased skin temperature w Signs of Thermolytic Inadequacy w Altered mentation or altered level of consciousness w Manifestations w Heat cramps - painful msucle spasms caused by overexertion, mild dehydration and electrolyte lost ( mostly Na+/hypernatremial) w Heat exhaustion - an acute reaction to heat exposure resulting in moderate dehydration, and electrolyte loss and vasodilation. w Heat stroke - an acute and life threatening reaction to heat exposure in which the hypothalmus can no longer regulate body temperature. Cell death and organ can result
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Heat Disorders (2 of 4) w Predisposing Factors w Age of the Patient w Health of the Patient w Medications w Diuretics, beta-blockers, psychotropics, and antihistamines w Level of Acclimatization w Length and Intensity of Exposure w Environmental Factors
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(3 of 4) w Preventive Measures w Maintain adequate fluid intake (primarily cool water). w
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2010 for the course PAR 100 taught by Professor Alan during the Spring '10 term at Miramar College.

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ch10 - Chapter 10 Environmental Emergencies Topics w...

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