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02- Biomolecules

02- Biomolecules - Biomolecules Thechemistryoflife o...

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Biomolecules The chemistry of life o We are made of organic molecules Contain C-H bonds Often are complex compounds made by living organisms Carbon has 4 valence electrons, makes 4 bonds, very important Macromolecules o Most biologically important molecules are macromolecules : big molecules o macromolecules are polymers o polymers are made up of monomers  linked together end-to-end o macromolecules are often defined by the monomers used to make them o Can break them up, build them, … Synthesis and Degradation o Biological polymers have simple synthesis and degradation o synthesis      involves loss of water:  condensation (dehydration) involved in about every process o degradation      involves adding water: hydrolysis     - cutting up the macromolecules with water o reversible reaction i.e. same reaction equilibrium favors hydrolysis life is lived far from equilibrium Condensation we are making/condensing water Hydrolysis reverse reaction, opposite of synthesis loss of water (environment that monomer is in loses water)
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Classes of macromolecules There are 4 major classes of macromolecules: o 1. carbohydrates o 2. proteins o 3. nucleic acids o 4. lipids Carbohydrates All have (CH 2 O) n : 1:2:1 molar ratio Two types o simple sugars monosaccharides     : single carbon ring energy storage function disaccharides: two linked monosaccharides they transport the energy storage molecules simple sugar chemistry often the same, only small structural/physical  differences, but differences are easily detectable figure 3.5 and 3.8  in crystal form, most 3- carbon sugars are in a line (like Glyceraldehyde  in the figure) two will join together and then make a water molecule o complex carbs polymers Carbohydrate polymers  complex carbs are polymers monomer: the monosaccharide glucose o joined by 1-4 carbon linkages o alpha or beta linkages possible three types of complex carbs: 1. cellulose o beta linkage of monomers o unbranched      linear chains
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o found in plant cell walls, give shape and structure  to plant cells o We don't eat it. It just makes plants tough. Most organisms can't digest the  beta linkage of monomers.
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