08- Ecosystem - Ecosystem services Ecosystems Ecosystem all...

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Ecosystem services Ecosystems - Ecosystem: all living things in a particular place and the nonliving (abiotic) environment in which they live - All components of an ecosystem interact with one another - Components of an ecosystem are highly interconnected - Different ecosystems are connected - Ecosystems defined at different levels Energy and matter in ecosystems - Ecosystems provide services that are essential to support life on earth - Capture and transfer of energy - Energy flows through ecosystems - Earth is an open energy system - can increase order, but not disorder - energy input that will flow through system - Storage and transfer of matter - matter and elements cycle through ecosystems - The right amount at the right time - Earth is a closed system with respect to matter - energy flows, matter cycles Ecosystems energy - The earth is an open system with regard to energy - Constant energy from the sun - Very little energy from the sun is captured for use - Emits thermal energy into space - Figure 57.10: ecosystems energy - only 1% of solar energy is absorbed by primary producers (organisms that can do photosynthesis) - 99% is absorbed as heat and reflected off into space Capture of matter and energy - Autotrophs : synthesize organic compounds from inorganic molecules - Photosynthetic : energy comes from sunlight to make organic compounds (sugars) - Chemosynthetic : oxidize inorganic compounds to obtain energy to make organic compounds Transfer of matter and energy - Heterotrophs: cannot synthesize organic compounds - Live by taking organic compounds and energy from other organisms - Primary consumers: eat producers - when you eat plants, which are the producers
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- Secondary consumers: eat primary consumers - when you eat animals, which are the primary consumers - Trophic level: an energy/matter transfer level in a food chain - producers → primary consumers → secondary consumers - Figure 57.8: trophic levels Trophic level energy transfer - How much energy is available to producers? Consumers? 2 nd consumers? - remember the 2 nd law! - Applies to ecosystem energy - inefficient - Only capture 1% of energy from sun - don't transfer all energy from one trophic level to the next - About 10% available as we move up trophic levels - most energy is given off as heat, walking around, … Energy loss in organisms - Figure 57.9: - beetle is eating leaf - some of the energy from the leaf is going to the beetle, - most will be lost as heat - 17% growth, 33% cellular respiration, 50% feces - Most acquired energy is lost as heat - Living organisms cannot transfer heat energy - Only energy stored in chemical bonds (biomass) can move up trophic levels - Figure 57.12 - If you have 5 trophic levels and the producers produce 1000 calories, at the end, only 1.2 calories make it to the last trophic level - Primary producers : 1000 calories - herbivores: 150 - smelt: 30 - trout: 6 - human: 1.2
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