13-DNA%20Structure - DNAStructure Geneticmaterial o...

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DNA Structure Genetic material - Patterns of inheritance can be explained by chromosome segregation - How do chromosomes transmit heritable traits? o Chromosomes made of proteins and DNA - Two questions: 1. Which molecule contains the genetic information? 2. What is the structure and mechanism responsible for genetic inheritance? Functions of genetic material - What does genetic material need to do? 1. Store information in stable form 2. Information must be readable 3. Information must be replicated 4. Information must be equally partitioned during cell division 5. Information must change (evolution)      But not too much…  Experimental work on genetic material: Griffith - Performed experiments with virulent (bacteria that cause disease) and nonvirulent  strains of bacteria - Nonvirulent strains were “transformed” o Picked up genetic material from environment o New genetic material would enable them to become virulent (were transformed) Passed on virulence to offspring: is heritable o Transforming principle = heritable genetic material - Provided an experimental system Avery, MacLeod, & McCarty - Used system discovered by Griffith - Set out to identify the “transforming principle” (1944)
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13-DNA%20Structure - DNAStructure Geneticmaterial o...

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