exam 2 - Mitochondria – Structure: – has 2 membranes,...

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Unformatted text preview: Mitochondria – Structure: – has 2 membranes, like nucleus – Outer membrane covers entire organelle – Inner membrane is extensively infolded, folded back and forth – inner membrane: folded into cristae – Compartment inside both membranes: matrix – part on the inside of the inner membrane – Has own circular DNA; can reproduce – mitochondria can divide and reproduce itself – Function: – Energy metabolism (cellular respiration) – manufacturing, digesting, processing of energy molecules – Structure/function relationship important for respiration – some cells have more mitochondria than others, muscle cells burn a lot of energy so they have a lot of mitochondria – Plants and animals both have mitochondria – Figure 4.17 – outer membrane – inner membrane is folded back and forth forming the crista – space between membrane—intermembrane space Plastids – Plastids: plant specific organelles – synthesizes/stores chemical compounds – often contains pigments (color) – pigments store light energy – stored and manufactured here – Only in plants – Types – Leucoplasts (colorless): store starch and fats, not pigments – Chromoplasts: contain nonchlorophyll pigment, can be any color and can change color depending on season/pigments being made – Chloroplasts: contain chlorophyll type pigments, contain pigments used for harvesting of light energy and production of energy molecules in plants Chloroplasts – Structure: – Outer membrane covers entire organelle – Inner membrane folded into stacked disks – thylakoid: single disk or single fold of inner membrane – grana: stacks of thylakoids – stroma: soluble material around grana – kinda like intermembrane space – Function – Site of photosynthesis in plant cells – convert light energy to chemical energy – structure/function similar to mitochondria – both harvest energy – double membrane is key to process energy molecules – No animals have chloroplasts, only in plants – Figure 4.18 – Grana is a stalk of thylakoids, space between granum is between stroma Vacuoles – Primarily found in plants (rarely in animals) – Prominent part in plant cells – Storage organelle – Store food, water, or waste – usually specific, don't store food & waste in the same vacuole..specific vacuoles have specific jobs – Central vacuole – Stores water: has water channels called aquaporins (specialized channel which help move water) in membrane – Involved in cell shape/water balance (osmosis) – vacuole gives cell its shape/structure – It pushes on the cell wall from the inside and gives it its shape – resist any pressure coming from the outside – pressure – turgor pressure – Involved in cell growth: grow by adding vacuolar volume, not cytoplasm – plant cells grow because central vacuole's size increases – animal cells-cytoplasm increases; plant cells- vacuole increases Structural support for cells – Eukaryotic cells are relatively large:...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2010 for the course BIO 11000 taught by Professor Friedman during the Spring '10 term at Purdue.

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exam 2 - Mitochondria – Structure: – has 2 membranes,...

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