Unformatted text preview: Sigmund Sigmund Freud Why Freud?? Why Freud?? Psychology Sex Death Love Humor Dreams Child development personality Philosophy Gender issues Religion Neurology Sociology Political Science Anthropology Art Still influential Still influential Oral Fixation Anal personality Freudian Slip Unconscious processes Who was Freud? Who was Freud? Grew up in Vienna Considered Law Went into medicine Very gifted in languages Neurologist “on the spinal cord of lower fish species” Reevaluated a theory on Cerebral Palsy Paris Paris Jean Martin Charcot studied hysteria Lead him into studying psychopathology Hypnosis Returned to Vienna Developed the “talking cure” Theories Theories Symbols, metaphors, and analogies oh my! Reflected in both theory & content He actually believed that all 3 of these things were clues to the unconscious. Topographical Model of the Mind Topographical Model of the Mind Conscious what you are aware of right now. Preconscious ordinary memories Not in your immediate awareness What was the last movie you saw Topographical Model of the Mind Topographical Model of the Mind Unconscious part of your mind that is not accessible Continuing influence on behavior Urges Feelings Ideas The Structural Model The Structural Model Personality has 3 aspects Id Ego Superego The 3 of these work together to create your personality ID ID First component of personality unconscious Present at birth Inherited, instinctive, & primitive aspects of personality Lives entirely in the The id is the engine of personality Id Id Pleasure principle needs should be satisfied immediately When tension arises, the id tries to discharge it Primary process = wish fulfillment Can’t deal with objective reality Ego Ego Evolves from the Id Uses Id energy to find effective way to fulfill desire Reality Principle Doesn’t BLOCK the id Rational behavior Considers the external world Helps the id get what it wants in a constructive way Ego Ego Intellectual process Problem solving Ego has no moral sense Id & Ego conflict Id wants things NOW Ego delays gratification Think of it like a horse and rider Superego Superego Embodiment of parental & societal constraints Right vs. Wrong 2 subsystems Egoideal rules to strive for Conscience what is bad 3 goals of the Superego 3 goals of the Superego Inhibit Id impulses Force the Ego to act morally Guide a person to moral perfection Works at the conscious level The Balancing act The Balancing act EGO
ID Reality superego Psychosexual Development Psychosexual Development Early experience = Adult personality Thought personality was developed by age 5 Development in stages Each stage reflects the part of the body sexual energy is channeled through Child confronts conflicts in 3 stages Fixation Fixation If you do not resolve a conflict Occurs for 2 reasons Too much libido gets invested in that stage Less available to handle conflicts at later stages Overindulgence – don’t wanna move on Needs are frustrated can’t move on The Oral Stage The Oral Stage Birth – 18 months Most interaction w/ the world is through the mouth Mouth is source of tension reduction Pleasurable sensations The Oral Stage The Oral Stage Conflict Weaning Children are under pressure to become less reliant on mom 2 sub phases Oral incorporative Oral Sadistic The Oral Stage The Oral Stage Oral incorporative Oral Sadistic Optimism vs. pessimism Trust vs. mistrust Dependency on others Sexual pleasure comes from biting & chewing Verbal aggression Oral personalities Oral personalities Relate to the world orally Some data confirming this Preoccupation with food and drink Stress= biting, chewing, smoking, nail biting Anger= verbal aggression Receiving support from others Try and ease interactions with people The Anal Stage The Anal Stage 18 mo – 3 yrs The anus is the focus of the erogenous zone Conflict : toilet training Children learn can’t relieve themselves whenever they want need to learn self control The Anal Stage The Anal Stage Personality characteristics – how did mom & dad toilet train you?? Child goes when/where mom & dad tell them to & get praise Learn to create things at the right time Creativity and productivity The Anal Stage The Anal Stage Mom and Dad emphasize: Yields 2 patters: Shame Punishment Ridicule for failures Some data confirming this Anal Expulsive tendencies to be cruel, messy, & destructive Anal Retentive rigid, obsessive, orderly, cleanliness The Phallic Stage The Phallic Stage 3 yrs 5 yrs Focus is in the genitals Stage 1 – totally from selfstimulation Gradually this shifts to the opposite sex parent Hostility develops for same sex parent The Phallic Stage The Phallic Stage Oedipus Complex boys Start to feel a sexual desire for mom Dad is a rival for mom’s attention & affection Start to feel hostility towards dad Afraid dad will retaliate – castration anxiety This leads him to repress desire into the unconscious Also leads boy to identify with dad Leads to development of super ego The Phallic Stage The Phallic Stage Electra Complex Abandons mom for dad when she realizes she has no penis Blames mom for castrated condition Penis envy By becoming more like mom increases the chance she will have a penis of her own her husband’s The Phallic Stage The Phallic Stage Boys try to demonstrate they haven’t been castrated Promiscuity Success The Phallic Stage The Phallic Stage Girls relate to men in a way that is flirtatious / seductive But denies that is what she is doing The Latency Period & The Latency Period & The Genital Stage Latency Period 6 early teens Genital stage Sexual & aggressive drives clam down Results from the emergence of Ego & Superego Time of intellectual growth Earlier child cares only for own gratification Here – child begins to care about others’ gratification Rarely achieved in entirety Anxiety Anxiety Anxiety is a warning to the Ego Reality anxiety a real threat or danger in the world Neurotic anxiety unconscious fear that your id will get out of control Moral Anxiety fear that comes after violating moral codes Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Tactics the ego uses to help deal with anxiety 2 characteristics 10 have been identified Operate unconsciously Distort, transform, or falsify information in some way Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Repression Keeps things out of consciousness – especiallythe Id Denial refusing to believe something took place Rationalization reduce anxiety by finding a rational explination Performed by the Ego Dreams Dreams The road to the unconscious Manifest content the sensory images of the dreamer Latent content unconscious thoughts & feelings – Symbolism is key!!! Why a dream takes the form it does ...
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- Spring '08
- Psychology, The Ego and the Id, Phallic stage