Psychology

Psychology - C h1: I n t rot o Psychology - Psychology...

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Ch 1: Intro to Psychology - Psychology (Greek roots): current translation- science of the mind - psukhe = breath/soul + logos = word/reason - scientific study of behavior & mind - scientific study of behavior and mind - using scientific method: depends on systematic observation - behavior: observable actions - mind: content and process of our subjective expressions (thoughts, emotions, sensations) - What is “mind”? - In early stages: “mind” conceived as independent/free-floating spirit - In later stages: “mind” conceived as brain whose function is to control behavior - “The mind is what the brain does” (Pinker, '97) - What do psychologists do? - Goals of modern psychology: - Determine “essentials of behavior and mind” - Determine why people act, think, and feel the way they do - Develop knowledge base about human and animal behavior Clinical Psychologists - Diagnose and treat psychological problems - clinics, private practice - counseling psychologists: work less with disorders and more with adjustment issues like marriage and education problems - Psychiatrists: physicians with specialty in MD that treat psychological problems Applied Psychologists - Apply psychology to practical problems in real world (not involved with psychological problems) - ex: industrial-organizational, human factors psychologists Research Psychologists - Conduct experiments to learn basic principles of behavior and mind - goal is to offer predictions of behavior - work in universities, colleges, research institutes - specialties: - bio-psychologists, cognitive, developmental, social, personality, and behavior psychologists Meeting of Philosophy and Physiology - Philosophy: where does knowledge come from? - Goes as far bask as Aristotle - What governs sensation? - What conditions help learning memory? - Where does knowledge come from? - Physiology: How does the human body work? - What are mechanics of sensory/motor systems - What are physiological processes of thought?
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History of Psychology: Philosophical Roots - Nativists - We're born with set mental structures for perceiving world and knowing certain things - organize by cause/effect - see world in terms of space and time - Immaneul Kant: our knowledge is limited to mind's perception of natural world - Gestalt Principles: humans are born with certain fixed way of seeing world - Innate systems can't be altered by experience - Nativists and Natural Selection - organisms are the end-product of an extensive evolutionary process - Charles Darwin (1809-1882): Traits are passed on to offspring (inherited) if they imporve chances of survival (adaptive) - Naturalists: Nature via Nurture - trait characteristics have a genetic component - most psychological traits arise from a combination of innate and environmental factors Psy: Schools of Thought - Structuralism - psy is “science of immediate experience” - mind built from elementary parts - ideas, consciousness, and sensations - Names to know: Wundt and Titchener (1879) - first psychologists with a lab - establish psychology as experimental science
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Psychology - C h1: I n t rot o Psychology - Psychology...

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