exam 2 notes - I. Conceptions of Empire British and...

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I. Conceptions of Empire - British and American colonies had different opinions of what colonies should do - British believed in mercantilism. Gaining wealth was their reason to create colonies, make governing country more wealthy by sending country taxes or unique, valuable products (money), colonies are dependent, secondary - Colonies o House of Burgesses: their government o Colonies shouldn’t be considered secondary, dependent, had their own government o Self-government was important o Each colony should be seen equal to other colonies and equal to Britain o Should be allowed to do what they wished - Beginning of 1660s – British Civil War ends, Britain’s Parliament passes Navigation Acts 91660-1663) II. Navigation Acts - Hoped to find a way to collect money from trade in the colonies - Everyone can still trade as they wish - Before: NY Africa - After: NY England to pay tax Africa - No one monitored, people smuggled and got away with it - Tax money didn’t reflect extent of American trade so they decided to enforce it - Customs inspector – Edward Randolph - Governor of MA put Randolph and his people in jail. They said they had no right to do what he was supposed to do. - King James II was upset because his authority was challenged - Took away the power of the colonies to govern themselves
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- Dominion of New England: colonies were put under authority of government appointed by king - Governor of New England: Edmund Andros o Didn’t realize how angry colonists were, the way he governed decreased popularity o Changed church of New England to Church of England – Anglican, people of New England were Puritans o Now town meetings except for once a year o Town meetings were how citizens voiced their opinions/concerns about everything o 1655: talks of rebellion among colonists that never happened o Had deputies working under him, had power to call troops o Extremely repressive administration III. Glorious Revolution 1688 o Peaceful transition of power o King James William and Mary o King was urged to step down. He was strict and Catholic o Mary, King James’ daughter, didn’t kill him o Mary and William were Protestant, more popular o America decided to attempt a peaceful transition of power o Issued demand for Andros to surrender and go to jail o Andros surrendered o Americans wrote to William and Mary to recall Andros, they listened o William and Mary allowed colonies to reestablish their own governments o William and Mary still believed in mercantilism o Established new courts: Admiralty courts – dealt with only smuggling
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o King reserves right to appoint governors in colonies even though they self- governed o Governors weren’t accepted, legislators often disagreed with them o Governors didn’t have as much power as they wanted to o Colonies still believed in complete self-government - Beginning in 1680s-1700s, English continued fighting French and Spanish, four major conflicts o last one: French and Indian War aka Seven Years War 1756-1763
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exam 2 notes - I. Conceptions of Empire British and...

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