Out of Many - Out of Many: 1-54 Cahokia: Thirteenth-Century...

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Out of Many: 1-54 Cahokia: Thirteenth-Century Life on the Mississippi - Indian residents of this 13 th century city lived and worked on the east banks of the Mississippi River - 20-30 thousand people - Temple: huge earthwork pyramid, 15 acres at its base, as high as a 10-story building, on top: quarters of priests and chiefs - 14 th century: Cahokia abandoned - One central temple mound, dozens of smaller mounds in the surrounding area, hundreds of large mounds throughout the valley - Europeans and Americans convinced that they were the ruins of a vanished civilization, not the work of Indians - Agricultural people, advanced in arts, manners, habits, and religion - Ancestors of Native Americans - Cahokia was a city-state supported by tribute and taxation - Great temple mound of Cahokia was intended to showcase the city’s wealth and power The First American Settlers - Who are the Indian people? o Western Hemisphere represented over 2000 separate cultures, spoke 100s of different languages, made livings in scores of different environments o Very diverse physically - Migration from Asia o Comparative studies of mitochondrial DNA demonstrates the close genetic relationship of Siberian and American Indian populations o Migration was possible because during the Ice Age, glaciers locked up massive volumes of water and Asia and North America were joined by land called Beringia o Began leaving Asia ~30000 years ago o Beringia was a perfect environment for large mammels o Evidence of toolmaking, house building, and rock painting o Probably fishers and gatherers o Third and final migration began after Beringia disappeared, hunting people crossed Bering Straits in small boats o Indians hold to oral traditions that say they have always lived in North America - The Clovis Culture: The First Environmental Adaptation o Tools found at the earliest North American archaeological sites are similar to artifacts from the same period found in Europe/Asia
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o Clovis: more sophisticated style of making fluted blades and lance points o Clovis bands were mobile communites of foragers numbering 30-50 individuals from several interrelated fmililes o Migrated seasonally o Ice Age’s ending altered Norht American climate - New Ways of Living on the Land o New patterns of wind, rainfall, and temperature, reshaped ecology o New ways of finding food: hunding, foraging, fishing, hunding and gathering o Hunting Traditions 32 classes of large New World mammals: mammoth, mastodon, horse,
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Out of Many - Out of Many: 1-54 Cahokia: Thirteenth-Century...

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