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Unformatted text preview: Exercise and Pulse Rate Lab
Rachel Romm Biology 1H 11 May 2009 Problem: How does exercise affect heart rate and recovery time? Objective: To determine how exercise affects heart rate and recovery time. Hypothesis: If a person exercises, then their heart rate will go up and then in a minute of recovery time, the heart rate would return to its resting rate. Introduction: The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats per minute. The average heart rate for a human at rest is 70bpm (beats per minute) for an adult male and 75bmp for an adult female. The average heart rate for an infant is higher than the one for an adult with a bpm of 120 while the average heart rate for an older child is 100bpm. The heart rate depends on the person’s gender and age as well as genetics and how fit the person is. One can measure the heart rate by finding a pulse, a throbbing artery, while pressing the index and middle finder over it, count the throbs for six seconds then multiply by ten. The typical locations for finding one’s pulse are at the neck under the ear, the carotid artery, and at the wrist, the radial artery. Other places were one can find their pulse is behind the knee, on the inside of the elbow, and near the ankle joint. The heart rate or heartbeat can also be measured by a stethoscope, which is more accurate than finding the heart rate manually. The resting heart rate is the number of beats the heart beats in a minute at complete rest. The resting heart rate indicates the fitness level of a person. The more physically fit the person is, the lower resting heart rate they have. The maximum heart rate is the highest number one’s heart can beat in one minute. The most accurate was for someone to find his or her maximum heart rate is by taking a cardiac stress test. An alternative for the cardiac stress test is 220 minus the age of the person. The maximum heart rate formula is not totally accurate but is just an approximation. The heart rate reserve is difference between the maximum heart rate and the minimum heart rate. The recovery heart rate is the amount of time it takes for a person who has just exercised to have their heart rate return to the rate of their resting heart rate. In mild exercise, it takes a few minute for the heart rate to recover to that if the resting heart rate, however; for people who are not in shape it takes longer. The target heart rate is a person’s idle range of heart rate for when exercising. At target heart rate, the lungs and the heart work at optimum conditions that benefit the personthe most. There are several different situations when it comes to heart rate. Tachycardia is when the average resting heart rate is over 100bpm, which is common for children but is not healthy for adults. Bardycardia is when the average resting heart rate is below 60bpm, which is common in trained athletes. The lowest resting heart rate of a healthy individual was 28bpm by a Tour de France winner. Arrhythmia is a condition where there are abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. Symptoms of arrhythmia are lightheadedness, dizziness, and fainting. Resent studies have shown that if the average resting heart rate of an adult is over 70bpm, then they have a 46% increased chance of having a heart attack than an adult with an average resting heart rate below 70bpm. http://www.heartmonitors.com/exercisetips/heart_rate_basics.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_rate Materials: • Computer • Data Studio program • Sensor Procedures: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. • • • Printer People Stopwatch Click on the B11 Pulse Rate icon on the desktop Close cover page Maximize the graph Click the “Σ” –check off the min/max/mean On the left of the screen (under “Data”), double click “open the voltage” icon Type in the initials of the person who will have their heart rate measured Type “at rest” for description Click “OK” Repeat steps 5-8 for the “heart rate” icon Have the person sit very quietly, clip monitor to their ear and start Repeat steps 4-9, but change description to “after exercise” Exercise mildly for exactly two minute Re-clip monitor and start immediately. Print out the graphs Data: The exercise preformed by the group was one minute of jumping jacks. Table 1: State of Group Members Before, During, and After Exercising Before During After AK Relaxed, calm Jumping Tired-ish RR Tired-ish Laughing Exhausted JL Relaxed, calm Slacking Tired-ish SO Relaxed calm Giggling Tired-ish Table 2: Mean Resting Heart Rate for the Group
Member RR AK JL SO Mean Resting Heart Rate 74 85 83 73 Table 3: Mean Exercise heart Rate of the Group
Member RR AK JL SO Mean Resting Heart Rate 143 155 120 124 Graph2 Mean Resting Heart Rateof the Group Compaired to 1: Mean Exercising Heart Rate
200 Mean Heart Rate 150 100 50 0 RR AK JL SO Group Members Resting Heart Rate Exercising Heart Rate Trend Line Data Analysis: The average mean resting heart rate of the group was 78.75bpm while the average mean exercising heart rate was 135.5bpm. Even though none of the group members got back to the resting heart rate in the one minute of recovery time, JL was the closest one, only 37bpm away from the resting heart rate. AK, on the other hand, was the furthest one away from the resting heart rate with a 70bpm difference between the exercising heart rate and resting heart rate. For RR, it would take approximately two more minute to recover back to the resting heart rate. It would take AK about two minutes also to recover back to the resting heart rate. Only one minute would be needed for both JL and SO to recover back to the resting heart rate. The physical state of the group members were all along the same lines so the physical state was not a factor in the data. However, RR was tired before the heart rate testing due to performing two minutes of jumping jacks ten minutes prior to RR’s heart rate testing. Conclusion: The hypothesis, if a person exercises, then their heart rate will go up and then in a minute of recovery time, the heart rate would return to its resting rate, was only partially correct. After exercising, all the people in the group’s heart rate did go up but failed to return to the rate of the resting heart rate in the minute of recovery time. During this experiment, there were several sources of error. The first error was that the group did not have a stopwatch, so therefore used an analogue clock. Since the group used an analogue clock, the two minutes of exercise were estimated making the exercise time for the group members unequal. The second source of error was that there was major giggling and in some cases laughing during the heart rate testing and as a result, creating inaccurate heart rate means. The third source of error was that RR could not remove RR’s earrings so therefore had to clip the sensor on her left hand index finger instead of the earlobe. This could have been a factor in the data because everybody else had the sensor on the earlobe. The fourth, and final, source of error was that when RR was being tested the first time, for both resting and exercising heart rate, the group forgot to check of the min/max/mean buttons. Consequentially, RR had to redo RR’s resting and exercising heart ten minutes after. Having had jumped two minutes already, RR’s resting heart rate was not accurate and after a total of four minutes of jumping jacks, RR’s exercising heart rate was not accurate either. In the future, several adjustments can be made to this experiment. Stopwatches can be provided to each group so that the two minutes are constant for all the group members. Jump ropes can also be provided so that all groups can do that same non-embarrassing exercise. In the real world, the resting heart rate, exercising heart rate and recovery time can all be used to measure the fitness level of a person. They can also be used to find the idle exercise of a person. Addendum: 1. What was the control in your experiment? The control in the experiment was the resting heart rate. 2. What is the influence of exercise on your heart rate? When exercising, the heart rate increases so that oxygen and nutrients would be delivered to the cells faster. 3. How do different types of exercise affect heart rate and recovery rates among the students in your class? Explain? The more intense the exercise is, such as stepping on and off a chair versus jogging in place, the higher the heart rate because the body needs more oxygen for harder tasks. 4. Are there any differences between male and female heartbeat rates and recovery rates among the students in your class? In the group, there were only females. In general, however, males have a slightly lower heart rate than females and recover faster than females do. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2010 for the course BIO 5381 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '10 term at N. Arizona.
- Spring '10