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Fingerprinting Lab

Fingerprinting Lab - DNA Fingerprinting Lab Rachel Romm...

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DNA Fingerprinting Lab Rachel Romm Biology 1H P5 11 March 2009
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Problem: Who was at the scene of the crime? Objective: To analyze and match the DNA fragmentation patterns after agarose gel electrophoresis and determine if Suspect 1 or Suspect 2 was at the crime scene. Hypothesis: If the DNA fragmentation patterns from the crime scene match the fragmentation patterns of a suspect, than the suspect was at the scene of the crime. Introduction: Human cells contain two different types of DNA. One type is cellular chromosomal DNA , which is the combined genetic material from both parents. The cellular chromosomal DNA has 23 sets of chromosomes that are used in DNA fingerprinting. The chromosomes contain a unique sequence of genes that make every person unique. The other type of DNA is mitochondrial DNA. In both males and females, the mitochondrial DNA is obtained from just the mother. Mitochondrial DNA is used for identifying fraternal linkage. DNA samples can be extracted from small amounts of skin, blood, semen, or hair roots. DNA typing is when an organism’s genomatic DNA is analyzed by examining several specific, variable DNA sequenced located throughout the genome. Dr. Alex Jeffreys first carried out human DNA fingerprinting in 1984. In 1987, for the first time, a suspect was convicted of murder based on evidence from DNA typing. From them on, DNA typing has been used in thousands of criminal convictions. DNA typing is very accurate so it is also used in person identification. For example, DNA typing was used to identify bodies in the September 11 terrorist attack. If the sample of DNA found is too small to be typed, the DNA is amplified. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) replicates the tiny bit of DNA until there is enough to be used for DNA tying. This makes if possible for very small amounts of DNA found at crime scenes to be used. DNA fingerprinting is used by having restriction enzymes digest the cellular chromosomal DNA. Restriction enzymes are endonucleases, which break down the phosphodiester bonds within both strands of DNA. The point at which the DNA is fragmented occurs at recognition sites, which are the markers for the start of one gene. The two most commonly used restriction enzymes are Hae III and Hinf I.
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Fingerprinting Lab - DNA Fingerprinting Lab Rachel Romm...

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