Dina-1511W026 EPIDEMIOLOGY.doc - Dina Faradhillah Samsu 1511W026 University of Capital Medical University School of Public Healthy Department of

Dina-1511W026 EPIDEMIOLOGY.doc - Dina Faradhillah Samsu...

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Dina Faradhillah Samsu 1511W026 University of Capital Medical University School of Public Healthy, Department of Epidemiology Spring 2020 Final Exam (Wednesday,18 March, 2020) 1 2 3 Total Signature Score 1. Concepts (40 pts) (1) epidemiology (5pts) Answer : Epidemiology is the science that forms the basis for public health action and unites the public health professions. Derived from three Greek roots (epi meaning upon, demos meaning people, and logia meaning study), the term epidemiology was originally applied to the study of outbreaks of acute infectious diseases and was defined as the science of epidemics. Epidemiology now refers to the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control health problems. The two key words in this definition are the distribution of diseases and the determinants of the diseases. In other words, epidemiology represents the study of how diseases occur in populations and why. Epidemiological observations are made on groups of populations rather than individuals, while clinical observations are made on individual patients. This is one reason why statistical methods are necessary for analyzing epidemiological data. The application of epidemiological 1
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Dina Faradhillah Samsu 1511W026 principles and methods to the practice of clinical medicine is called Clinical Epidemiology. ( 2) Odds ratio (5 pts) Answer : The Odds Ratio is usually computed in a case control study where it is not possible to get the incidence, as we have group of diseased cases and group of non diseased subjects (Controls). When odds of exposure and odds of non exposure are compared between the two studied groups, then the resultant is the Odds Ratio. Simply to get an Odds Ratio, you should divide the odds of exposure among cases by that among controls and then divide this result by that of odds of non exposure among cases and controls. (3) Case-control study (5 pts) Answer : Case control studies are backward directional studies that compare a group of people with disease with one or more groups of non-diseased . In a case control design, sampling starts with diseased and non- diseased individuals. The exposure status is then determined by looking backward in time (using documentation of exposures or recall of historical events). For this reason, case control studies are also called as retrospective studies. The measure of association in a case control study is called an Odds Ratio. The Odds Ratio is the ratio of the odds (chance) of exposure among cases in favor of exposure among controls. (4) Bias (5 pts) 2
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Dina Faradhillah Samsu 1511W026 Answer: Bias is defined as the deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. The concept of bias is the lack of internal validity or incorrect assessment of the association between an exposure and an effect in the target population. In contrast, external validity conveys the meaning of generalization of the results observed in one population to others. There is not external validity without
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