Lecture%204 - Problem Sets and Review Session BILD1 The...

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1 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 1 BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 2 Problem Set 2 online tomorrow! Will be discussed in Sections next week Problem Set 1 key Posted this Saturday Problem Set 2 key posted next Saturday Midterm 1 review session Saturday Jan 27 th 4:30 - 7:30 Location TBA Problem Sets and Review Session 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 3 Highlights from the previous lecture (ch. 4&5): The shape of molecules is determined by valence electrons Carbon is versatile in its ability to form four covalent bonds Chemical shorthand omits carbons and hydrogens Functional groups are reactive covalent clusters that confer known chemical properties H O N C NH 2 OH 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 4 Clarification: amino acids and charge O - C O N + H H H C R H All amino acids are charged due to amino and carbonyl However, charge of R GROUP determines their behavior in a polypeptide 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 5 Polymers are built of monomers through condensation (dehydration) reactions; broken by hydrolysis Glycosidic covalent bonds link sugar monomers; Peptide/amide covalent bonds link amino acid monomers Monomer # and identity, bond #, location, and type all help determine diversity of polymer structure and function Protein structure: primary (sequence), secondary (folding/coiling), tertiary (polypeptide 3D shape), quaternary (whole protein) More highlights from the previous lecture (ch. 4&5): O O O O O 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 6 THIS LECTURE: Nucleic acid polymers (phosphodiester bonds) Lipids (not true polymers; glyceride/ester bond) Amphipathic molecules and lipid bilayers Metabolism, thermodynamics, and Gibbs free energy Enzymes and enzyme regulation
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2 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 7 Polysaccharides = polymers of sugars linked by glycosidic bond Proteins = polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bond Nucleic acids = polymers of nucleotides linked by phosphodiester bond Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information Genes Are the units of inheritance Program the amino acid sequence of polypeptides Are made of nucleic acids Two types of nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 8 1 2 3 Synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus Movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore Synthesis of protein NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM DNA mRNA Ribosome Amino acids Polypeptide mRNA DNA (made of nucleotide monomers) encodes RNA RNA encodes amino acids Amino acids join to form polypeptides Polypeptides join to form proteins 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 9 The Structure of Nucleotides Nucleic acids (polynucleotides) Polymers made of nucleotide monomers (a) Nucleic acid, or polynucleotide 3’C 3’ end OH Nucleotide monomer 01/18/07 BILD1 - Lecture 4 10 Nucleotide Monomers Nucleotide monomers Are made up of phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base 5’ end 5’C 3’C O O O Nitrogenous base O O O O P CH 2 5’C 3’C Phosphate group Pentose sugar O Purines (2 rings) adenine (A)
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