Lecture%206 - Review Session and Problem Sets BILD1 The...

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1 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 1 BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 2 Key to Problem Set 1 online now Key to Problem Set 2 online Saturday Midterm 1 review session this Saturday Jan 27th 4:30 - 7:30 Solis 107 Review Session and Problem Sets 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 3 Highlights from previous lecture: ATP is a nucleotide (~RNA with “A” nitrogenous base), but with three phosphate groups instead of one ATP is a “rechargeable battery” for cellular energy Energy released by hydrolysis of last phosphate Recharged by substrate-level (glycolysis, citric acid cycle) or oxidative (electron transport chain) phosphorylation Harnesses energy from exergonic processes to drive endergonic reactions Redox reactions involve coupled oxidization (loss of electrons) of one molecule and reduction (gain of electrons) of another via transfer (ionization) or uneven sharing (polar covalent bonds) of electrons - O O O O CH 2 H OH OH H N HH O N C HC N C C N NH 2 Adenine Ribose Phosphate groups O O O O O O --- CH P P P 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 4 Highlights from previous lecture: Catabolism of glucose is a slow, cool “burn” (oxidization) of glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Æ 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy Glycolysis breaks 1 6C sugar into 2 3C sugars; releases 2ATP and 2NADH (electron acceptor); in cytosol; independent of oxygen Citric acid cycle oxidizes a pyruvate derivative (acetyl CoA) into CO 2 ; releases NADH, FADH 2 , and 2ATP; in mitochondrial matrix; requires oxygen; cyclical because OAA is regenerated Oxidative phosphorylation uses NADH and FADH 2 from glycolysis and citric acid cycle; pumps H + into intermembrane space; in mitochondrial inner membrane; requires oxygen 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 5 Chemiosmosis (movement of H + from intermembrane space, down concentration gradient, into mitochondrion through ATP synthase pore) drives oxidative phosphorylation at the end of the electron transport chain via allosteric promotion Fermentation extracts further energy from the products of glycolysis when oxygen absent 2 forms: alcohol and lactic acid fermentation both use NAD + as final electron acceptor Highlights from previous lecture: 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 6 Photosynthesis-- “respiration in reverse” THIS LECTURE:
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2 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 7 Energy Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cel ular work Heat energy 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 8 Photosynthesis Is the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy Plants and other autotrophs Are the producers of the biosphere Plants are photoautotrophs They use the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from water and carbon dioxide Heterotrophs Obtain ALL of their organic material from other organisms Are the consumers of the biosphere 01/25/07 BILD1 - Lecture 6 9 Photosynthesis
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2010 for the course BENG 110 taught by Professor Schmid-schoenbein during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture%206 - Review Session and Problem Sets BILD1 The...

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