Lecture%207

Lecture%207 - Midterm 1! BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M....

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1 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 1 BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 2 Midterm 1! • CURVE posted, KEY will be posted after alll students have arranged makeup exams •Regrades on exams in non-erasable pen only – Regrade requests must be submitted in writing, on paper by Feb. 15 th – Whole exam will be regraded! 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 3 MEAN = 77 B A C D F APPROXIMATE letter grade equivalent estimates! Actual curve to be calculated with all grades AFTER FINAL Midterm 1 CURVE 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 4 Highlights from previous lecture: Plants are photoautotrophs (producers) Photosynthesis, “respiration in reverse”, makes organic macromolecules out of CO 2 , water, and light energy from the sun Redox: water is oxidized, CO 2 is reduced. Water is split, its electrons used in sugar Chloroplast pigments (chlorophylls etc) absorb primarily purple and red light energy, electrons are excited Energy of excited electrons passed on to electron acceptors in photosystems 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + Light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 5 Light reactions: photosystem II, then I In grana, water split, O2 released Noncyclic electron flow creates ATP (via chemiosmosis) and NADPH Cyclic electron flow (photosystem I only) creates only ATP Dark reactions (Calvin cycle): In stroma, sugar produced ATP used for energy, NADPH for reducing power Carbon fixation Reduction Regeneration of CO 2 acceptor Highlights from previous lecture: Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cel ular work Heat energy 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 6 The Cell! (Finally!) THIS LECTURE:
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2 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 7 The Importance of Cells All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 8 Containment problem Specificity problem Information problem Cells must solve several basic problems: 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 9 Cell structure is correlated to cellular function 10 μm 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 10 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and biochemistry Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye Light microscopes (LMs) Pass visible light through a specimen Magnify cellular structures with lenses Electron microscopes (EMs) Focus a beam of electrons through a specimen (TEM) or onto its surface (SEM) 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 11 Isolating Organelles by Cell Fractionation Cell fractionation Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another The centrifuge Is used to fractionate cells into their component parts 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 12 Every organism is made up of one of two types of cells: Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
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3 02/01/07 BILD 1 - Lecture 7 13 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells All cells have several basic features in common They are bounded by a plasma membrane
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Lecture%207 - Midterm 1! BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M....

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