Lecture%2017

Lecture%2017 - POSTED: Problem Set 6, discussed in Section...

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1 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 1 BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 2 POSTED: Problem Set 6, discussed in Section this week Study guide, Practice Final HANDOUT for Thurs: PCR POSTED FRIDAY : Problem Set 6 KEY Final Review Session : Saturday, March 17 th , 4:30-7:30pm 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 3 FINAL EXAM! – Tuesday March 20 th , 11:30am -2:30 pm, MANDEVILLE AUDITORIUM – Multiple choice, T/F, and fill in the blank CUMULATIVE! – Counts as much as BOTH Midterms together! – ½ of exam on new material, ½ on old 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 4 Highlights from previous lecture: 700 nm 1,400 nm Metaphase chromosome Regulation of gene expression Development, differentiation, response to environment primarily at transcriptional level Prokaryotes: operons Repressible Inducible Positive and negative Eukaryotes Chromatin structure (heterochromatin histone acetylation Histone methylation DNA methylation Control elements Proximal Distal (enhancers) » Activators, repressors bind Coordinate control 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 5 Highlights from previous lecture: - EUKARYOTES, continued Posttranslational modifications mRNA degradation RNA interference (miRNA) Protein processing and degradation Cancer Role of viruses, predisposition Oncogenes, proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes Noncoding sequences Transposons, retrotransposons Multigene families Duplication and diversion Exon shuffling Transposable elements 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 6 Human Genetics Clarification •Alleles segregate independently in meiosis •Dominant and recessive alleles exist •Family tree or pedigree used in analysis = female = male Normal = female = male Carriers (heterozygous) = marriage Helps analyze inherited disorders, determine type of alleles involved, predict risk = female = male Affected
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2 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 7 THIS LECTURE: VIRUSES AND BACTERIA 0.5 μ m 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 8 • Viruses called bacteriophages – Can infect and set in motion a genetic takeover of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli E. coli and its viruses – Are called model systems because of their frequent use by researchers in studies that reveal broad biological principles • Beyond their value as model systems – Viruses and bacteria have unique genetic mechanisms that are interesting in their own right 0.5 μ m 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 9 The Discovery of Viruses • Tobacco mosaic disease – Stunts the growth of tobacco plants and gives their leaves a mosaic coloration 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 10 Structure of Viruses •V i r u s e s – Are very small infectious particles consisting of nucleic acid enclosed in a protein coat and, in some cases, a membranous envelope 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 11 Viral Genomes • Viral genomes may consist of – Double- or single-stranded DNA – Double- or single-stranded RNA • The nature of the genome – Is the basis for the common classification of animal viruses 03/13/07 BILD1 - Lecture 17 12 18 × 250 mm
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Lecture%2017 - POSTED: Problem Set 6, discussed in Section...

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