Lecture%2018

Lecture%2018 - BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger Final...

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1 03/15/07 Lecture 18 1 BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger 03/15/07 Lecture 18 2 POSTED: Problem Set 6 KEY Practice Final Study guide (summary outline) FINAL EXAM IS IN !!! MANDEVILLE AUDITORIUM !!! 11:30 – 2:30 TUESDAY 3/20 Final Review Session : Saturday, March 17 th , 4:30-7:30pm 03/15/07 Lecture 18 3 Viruses: nucleic acid + protein coat Nucleic acid RNA or DNA, double or single stranded Retroviruses (reverse transcriptase) Coat = capsid or envelope Obligate intracellular parasites lytic vs lysogenic cycles Virulent, temperate viruses Viral disease, vaccines Horizontal and vertical transmission Viroids and prions Highlights from previous lecture: 0.5 μ m 03/15/07 Lecture 18 4 Highlights from previous lecture: Bacteria Divide by binary fission Genetic diversity: mutations, recombination between cells, transposons Gene transfer Transformation Transduction Conjugation (F plasmid) R plasmids and antibiotic resistance 03/15/07 Lecture 18 5 Transposition of Genetic Elements • Transposable elements – Can move around within a cell’s genome – Are often called “jumping genes” – Contribute to genetic shuffling in bacteria 03/15/07 Lecture 18 6 Insertion sequence Transposase gene Inverted repeat Inverted repeat 3 5 3 5 A T C C G G T… T A G G C C A … A C C G G A T… T G G C C T A … Insertion Sequences • An insertion sequence contains a single gene for transposase – An enzyme that catalyzes movement of the insertion sequence from one site to another within the genome
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2 03/15/07 Lecture 18 7 Transposons • Bacterial transposons – Also move about within the bacterial genome – Have additional genes, such as those for antibiotic resistance Inverted repeats Transposase gene Insertion sequence Insertion sequence Antibiotic resistance gene Transposon 5 3 5 3 03/15/07 Lecture 18 8 • Sequencing of the human genome was largely completed by 2003 • DNA technology has launched a revolution in the area of biotechnology – The manipulation of organisms or their genetic components • DNA sequencing accomplishments – Have all depended on advances in DNA technology, starting with the invention of methods for making recombinant DNA • An example of DNA technology is the microarray – A measurement of gene expression of thousands of different genes INTRO TO GENETIC ENGINEERING 03/15/07 Lecture 18 9 • DNA cloning permits production of multiple copies of a specific gene or other DNA segment • To work directly with specific genes – Scientists have developed methods for preparing well-defined, gene-sized pieces of DNA in multiple identical copies, a process called gene cloning • Most methods for cloning pieces of DNA in the laboratory – Share certain general features, such as the use of bacteria and their plasmids 03/15/07 Lecture 18 10 • Overview of gene cloning with a bacterial plasmid, showing various uses of cloned
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2010 for the course BENG 110 taught by Professor Schmid-schoenbein during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture%2018 - BILD1 The Cell Prof. Lisa M. Boulanger Final...

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