6PhilTrans%20selections%20%2B%20MS%20inquiries

6PhilTrans%20selections%20%2B%20MS%20inquiries - NumE. I, m...

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Unformatted text preview: NumE. I, m PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS. filnnday, flfarcb 6. I 66?. The Contents. An Introduflz'on to tbi: TraEZ. An dump; of ti): Improvement of Optick Glades at Rome. 0,099: Oéférvation made in England, of a Spot in an: oft/)3 Belt: oft/m Planet Jupiter; Ofdye motion of 23/74! late Comet prodigal; The Head: of many New 0&[érvm‘éam and Experiment}, in order to an Experimental Hil’tory of Cold 5 ~ togetber wit/2 [bme Thermometrical Difccurfe; aniExperimentk A Relation of a very odd Mon/{row Calf.» Of a perulz'ar Lead- Ore in Germany, very ufifizlfor EflayL Ofan Hungarian Bo- lus, oftbe fame efiEEi mitt/2 tbs: Bolus Armenus, Oftbc New Ame. rican W/m/eLfi/lmtg about tbe‘Bermudas. A Naratz'zre concerning t/Je [fuzz/x of the Pendulum-watches at S ea fir t/2e_ Lon 21- tudes ; and the Grant of a Patent {berm/Jam A Catdlagne of :62 I’bilo/opbz‘cal Bookrpublzflzt Ivy Monlienr do Format, Conn/Mow at Tholoufe, lately dead. The 17117055155071. ’ 4’“ Hereas thereis nothing more neceifary for promoting ‘ , the improvementofPhilolbphicalMatrorsghanthe 4 communicatingto fuch,‘as apply their Studies and ’ ”’ Ehdcaxiours that‘way, {uch things as are difcovc- red or put in praétife by others ; it is therefore thought fit to employ the Prefi, as the mof’t proper way to gratifie thofe, whofe engagement infuch Studies, and delight in the advancement of Learning and profitable Difcoveries, doth entitle them to the knowledge of whatthis Kingdom, or other parts of the World, do, fromtime to time, afford, as well A of (2) ofthe ptogrefs ofthe Studies , Labours , and attempts of the- Curious and learned in things ofthis kind, as oftheir compleat Dilcoveries and performances : To the end, that fuch Produ- étions being clearly and truly communicated, delires after folid and ufefull knowledge may be further entertained , ingenious Endeavours and Undertakings cherifhed , and thofe, addicted to and converfant in inch matters, may be invited and encourzv ged to (catch, try, and find out new things, impart their know- ledoe to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grind delign ofimproving Natural knowledge,aiid perfeajng all Pbi/ofapbiml flrtr, and Shanta. All for the Glory OfGod, the Honour and Advantage of thele Kingdoms, and the Univerfal Good of Mankind. A72 Accompt oft/fie improvement of Opticlt Glades... There came lately from Part} :1 Relation, concerning the Im, provernentof Opticé Glaflér, notlongfince attempted at Rome by Signor G-iu/eppc Campaniand by him dilconrled oflin a Book, Entitulcd, Ragguaglz'odz'nuouc OflErt/atz‘om', lately printed in the faid City,bnt not yet tranfmitted into thefe parts; wherein thefe Following particulars, according, to the Intelligence,which was fent hither,- are contained- The Fhfl rcgardeth the excellency ofthe long Telq/capwfimde by the laid Campani, who pretends to have found a way to work great O‘Drz'ck Glaflé: with a . Turne-tool 5. without any.- Mould : And whereas hitherto ithath been found by Experi— ence, that [mail Glalfes are in proportion better to fee with,up— on the Earth, than thegrerzt ones 5 "that Author affirms, that his are equally good for the Earth,and for making Oblervations in the Heavens. Belides, he uleth three Eye-Glades for his great Tc/efcopex, without finding any In}, Or inch Rain-bow colours,as do ulually appear in ordinary Glades, and prove an impediment to Ohlervations.. The Second, concerns the Circle of Saturn, in which he hath ob. {err/ed nothing, but what confirms Monlienr (briflim haygem d'e {ulirbem-his Sylleme of that Planet, publilhed by that worthy Qentleman in the year, r 659. The (u) there-about take it From what their Forefathers had thrown a- way, and had lain long in the open Air. The ufe above men- tioned being confiderable,the perfon, who'rfe‘nt it, hath been intteatedi to inform what'qnantities maybe had of it,iil: "there {hould be oceaiion to fend for fome. afar: Hungarian Balm, q’tbe flzme Eflreii with the Bolas Armenus, The fame perfon gave notice alfo,that, befides the Balm Ar- menu:, and the Term Sz'Ie/Zam,there is an Earth to be found in Hungary about the River Tacks}, thence called Balm Tockaw'm- fir, having as good efl‘eé‘ts in ij/ick, as either of the former ‘ two, and commended by eXperience in thofe parts, as much as it is by Sennertur out ofCrato, for its goodnefs, 0f the New American Whale-fiflvz'rzg about the Ber- mudas. Here follows aRelaEion,{omewhat more divertifing,than the precedent Accountsgwhich is about the new Whale-fi/bz'lg in the l-Vfiblndg’e: about the Bermadm, as it was delivered by an under- fianding and hardy Sea-man, who afiirmed he had been at the killing work himfelf. His account,as far as remembred,was this; that though hitherto all Attempts ofmafiering the Whales of thof‘eSeas had been unfnccesful,by reafon of thewextraordinary fiereenefs and fwiftnefsof thele moni’crous Animals; yet the .eiiterprife being lately renewed, and fnch perfons chofen and fent thither for the work, as were refolved not to be baffled by a Sea-monfier, they did’proiper {0 far in this undertaking, that, haying been out at Sea, near the {aid Ille ofBer'madarfeventeen times, and fallmed their Weapons a dozen times,they killed in~ thefe eXpeditions 2 old Female-Whales, and-3' Cubs, whereot one of the old ones, from the head to the extremity oftheTayl, was 88. Footin length, by meafure; its Tayl‘ being 23; Foot broadfihe fwimming Finn 26. Foot long, and the Gills three Foot long: having great bends underneath from the Nofe to the Navilsupon her after-patt,a Finn on the backs being within B 2 paved (IQ) paved (this was the plain Sea mans phrafe) with fat, like the Cawl of a Hog. , The other old one, he laid, was forne 60. Foot long. Ofthe Cubs, one was 33. the other two, much about 2;. or 26. Foot lon . The lhape ofthegFifh,he laid, was very lhar behind, like the ridge ofa ho’ufeg the head pretty bluff, and nll of bumps on both fides; the back perfectly black, and the belly white. Their celerity and force he affirmed to be wonderful, info- mneh that one ofthofe Creatures,which he l’truck himlelffiow. ed the boat wherein he was; after him, for the {pace offix or fe- ven Leagues, iniofan hours time. Being wounded, he faith, they make a hideous roaring, at which, all ofthat kind that are within hearing, come towards that place, where the Animal is, yet without firiking, or doing any harm to- the wary. He added, that they l‘truck one of a prodigious bignels, and by guefs ofabove too foot long.He is ofopinion, that this Fill} comes n'earel’t' to that fort ofWhales, which they call the ju- éartex; they are without teeth, and longer than the Greenland» Whales, but not [0 thick. - He {aid further,that they fed much upon Grafs,growing at the bottom. of the Sea; which, he afiirmed, was feen by cutting up the great Bag of Maw, whereinhe had found in one ofthem about two or three HOglheads ofa greenifln graiTy-matter. As to the quantity and nature of the Oyl which they yield, he thought, that the largef’t fort ofthefe Whales might afford feven or eight Tuns it well husbanded, although they. had‘loit much this firl’t time,for want ofa good Cooper,havi.ng brought home but eleven Tuna. , The Cubbs, by his relation, do yield but little, and that is but a kind ofa Jelly. That which the old; ones render, doth candy like Porks-Greaie, yetbnrneth very well. He obferved,_that the Oyl ofthe Blnbber is as clear and fair as any Whey: but that which is boyled out ofthe Lean, in-. terlarded, becomes as hard as Tall_ow,fpattering in the burning and that which is made ofthe Cawl, refembleth Hoggs-greafe. One, but fcarce credible, quality ofth-is Oyl, he affirms robe, that though itbe boiling, yet one may run ones hand into it without Icalding; to which he adds, that it hath a very healing Venue (13) Vertue for cuttings, lamenelsfic. the part afi'etfted being anoin- ted therewith. One thing more he related, not to be omitted, which is, that having told, that the time of catching thefe Filhes was from the beginning of Mercb, to the end of May , after which time they appeared no more in that part of the Sea: he did, when asked,whither they then retired, give this Anlwer, That it was thought, they went into the Weed~beds of the Gulf of Florida, it having been oblbrved , that upon their Fins and Tails they have l’tore of’Clams or Barnacles, upon which, he faid, Rock-weed or Sea-tangle did grow a hand long; many of them having been taken ofthem, of the bignefs of great Oy~ fier-lhels, and’hnng upon the Governour of Bermuda: his Pales. A Narrative conterning tbefizccefi of Penduluchatc/jes at Sea fir the Longituzés. . The Relation lately made by Major Holmer, concerning the fuccefs of the PendnlamWa-tc/Je: at Sea (two‘whereof were com:— mitted to his Care and Oblervation in his lal’t voyage to t ainy by fome of our Eminent Virtue/F, and Grand Promoters of Na. vigati-on) is as followethls The {aid Major havin left that Coafli, and being come to the Ifle ofSt.Tbama: under t e Line,accompanied with fourVefl'els, having there adjulted his Watches, put to Sea,and failed \Vcfi'. ward, {even or eight hundred. Leagues, without changing his courle; after which, finding the Wind favourable, he {teered‘ towards the Coal-t of/jlfrick, North3No~rth-Eafi. Buthaving failed upon that Line a matter oftwoor three hundred Leagues, the Matters ofthe other Ships, under‘his Condnét, apprehend- ingthat theylhould want Water, before they could reach that Coaflz,did propofeto‘him to l’teer thieir Courfe to the Baréadoer, to fupply themi'elves with Water there. thrcupon the {aid Major,having called the Malter and Pilots together,and carried them to produce their journals and Calculations, it wasfound, that thofe Pilots did-differ intheir reckonings from that of the Major, one of them eiohty Leagues,another about an hundred, and the third, more ; (but theMajorjudging by his Pendulum Watcbegthat they were only form: thirty Leagues diltant from El]: (629) NumB. 3; Beginning the Fourth Year. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS Monday, Marc/J 16. 1 6631. The Contents. Mn Ihtrodufl‘ion to the Fourth Tmrqf tbefi mm. A» Accozmt g’ the Invention of Grinding Optick-md Burning—(Slams {2f 4' Figure not Spherical, latelyprodmed btfore the. R. Society. Some Obfcrwtiom by way (fL/mfwcr toflmnc’ rift/J: [figuirier am- cz’rm'ng T yder, propofi’d Numb. 17.477d 18. chie: and Direé'fi. mrfbr the Caribbe—[flmdL A?! Accozmt qf two Bookx: I. SAG. GI. DI' N-ATURALI' ESPERIENZE fatte nell’ ACA- DEMIA del CIMENTO, in FIRZENZE A. 1667. in F0]. 11. VERA CIRCULI & HYPERBOLIE QUA- DRATURA, in propria fun Proportionis {pecie inven— ta & demonf’rram £1: .JOCOBO GREGORIO Scoto, PATAVII in 4.0 1667: W/mzcc a flatbed is dad/wed qf Mrafbriflg the Area M Ayperbole, and cmfi-quent/j filidiflg the Logarithim of [my Number, and écontra: L’dflf‘l 21m ap- plycd to the Gauging or Mmfit’mtion if my Segmentg’ (my Cone, 850. An Irztrodm‘i‘ion To the Fourth Year of tbefia Traflr. N my firfl Number'(0fMarc12, in the Year 1661;.) Irender’d the reafons and purpofes of thefe Phi/ofip/Jz'm/ Com‘mrm/mtiom. In the Second Year (beginning inflizrcly 4.1 666. at Nay/212.10.) I endeavour’d to revive and imprcfs the Utility of’rhefe United Correfpoudenciean the Third year(beginning in Mm}; A. 1-66 7. X x x at (6; o) at New. 23.31 defended our Ind uflry from the Obioquies of [hell memas prefer endlefs Contentions about words before the ulEful Works of the noblef’t Arts; and bond the Notions, yea, and ol‘etimes the Cavils of pore-Mi;er Heathen Writers, above the great and admirable Works of God. Here,I think, I may from manifefl appearances, without any great prefumption, ominate, That the following Trad}: {halt fomewhat more fatisfie the zygmuow, than the former, for as much as my Philofophical Commerce from time to time en- largeth it felt, and I am {till better and better furnilh’d with [tore of judicious Correfpondents in the mofl: confiderable placesof the World; and they are by the foregoing Tracts (elpecia'lly from Numb. 1-1. and feveral of theft: that follow) better dire- é‘ted to afford true Aids, as alfo to fend in good Anftyers to the Enquiries already made publick. Yet I hope, even our farmer Traé't': will not be very much bla- med by fuch, as [hall be pleas’d to confider, that fame of them have already brought in {everal pertinent Anfwerr; we. from a Sea-Voyage, the Cariééelflands, and firemaz’ca in particular, the Baltic/e-Sea, our Manchu-Mines, GIN. Numb.» 19, a7, 30; that other: of them do infiruét, prepare, and enable, for fevere Obfer— various; other: lay the ground for Philofophical Advancements 5 ether: are accurate Exemplifications; and fame of them contain divers Valuable Particulars, which perhaps had otherwife been loft, or drown’d in a worfe crowd of Impertinencies, or Feat— ter’d in more coltly Volamer. Certainly there are well-deviled Direfliom; efpecially proper for Sea-men and all Travellers, and fuch as may pleafingly and beneficially entertain them whilit they are under Sail, or on their Land-Voyage55 and they can- nor be unacceptable to the Ingenious and Curious in our Colo- nies, and in other places of belt note. All which may be teen in a {hm-t View in the T5516: annexed to Numlz. 22. and 32. V122 c 634 ) The Scheme it felf. be. foot. inch. 50: fear: inch. [*1 c t a 6 a 6 2 2_ . . . 6A 2. 2. . . 6 ‘ 0f Flowing 2mm: _' _ z 3 0f Ehhiizg. am“: : : I g .5 2-...6 5- 2"...6. 6 1 . . 6 6—-—-—-1 . . . 5‘ 6. The ufual number of Tides, or times of H’ightwater from Nam-[Mam to NCW’MIJW), or from Fufl- Mom to Full-Mom, is 59, So far the Rem/zth hitherto made hj this-ittquifiti've perfim upon rim Sahjefiwaidesmha not on!) promifcth hi5 own cmtimmmefir farther Ohfer'wztiomhut alfo hi4 care of recommending the [aid Tide-mlxrics to the con/12mi- thfl’rvatim qf an. intellzgmt per/6h living (my/15 Sea-fide. Enquiries and @ireé‘tions; For the Ant—Ila, or Caribbe-Iflnmds. M, Numb. 2 3. flme queries wergfipuhhjh’d for firm part: of the Wefl.1ndies,md thofi'far'otherparts rcfcrv'd to another opporttmit] ;, which prcflmihg it at that time, wefha/l here’fct donwjnch Engm‘- 71365 for the Ant—1165, (a were colleffcd- out of the Relation: offewral Author: writing of thafe lflma’s, fuch (a are the Natural Hifi'ory of the Ant-Iles, written h} a French—mm 5_ the Hiflory of the Barba- doeshy LygonS (fire. to the enchthat thcfc Qgcries hcihg coiyidcrm’ h}. fitcbcllrtott; perflm: (a frequent. tho]? places, and dclz‘ght in making agrqfixl Ohfervatiom, the] may from theme return fuch Ahfwm,“ ma} {it/757 confirm.” rcfiifieltha Relation; comet/hing themafrmdy extant. The Enquiries are thefe : 1. Of Vegetahles. 1, V Heth‘er .the juice of the Fruit: of the Tree 3107494, I ' being as clear as any Rock-Winemyxclds a brown Vio- letdys: and being put thcc upon the fame place, math it ‘ look (635) look [31er «3 And whether this Tinéture cannOt be got out with any Soap, yet difappears of it {elf in 9 or 10 days *3 And whether certain Animals, and particularly Hogs and Parrots, eating of this Fruit, have their Pleih and Pat altogether tinged of a Violet colour r 2. Whether Ring-cloves, that feed upon the bitter Fruit of the‘Acovmr Tree, have their Fleih bitter alfo 1’ 3. Whether the Wood of the Acajou Tree, being red, light, and well Rented, never rots in Water,, nor breeds any Wormst when out in due i'eafon': And whether the Clary}: and ‘Trzmkr made thereof, keep Clothes, placed therein, from being Wanna eaten ‘3 4. Whether the Leaves of a certain Tree , peculiarly called IndianJI/bod , give fuch a haw-goufl to Meat and Sauces, as if it were a compofition of ieveral forts of Spie ces? 5. Whether there he fuch two forts of the Woodkcall’d Sir» wm‘er, or Soap-wood, of the one of which the PM”, of the other the Root. fetveth for Soap .? 6. Whether the bark of the Perem'uz'er-wwd terms as well as Oak—bark '3 i 7. Whether the Root of the Tree Lairm, being brayed and. caf’t into Rivers, maketh Fifhes drunk '3 8. Whether the Root of the Maniac is (‘0 fertile, that one Acre planted therewith, yields (0 plentiful a crop, as (hell feed more people than fix Acres of the belt Wheat 5’ 9. What Symptoms do ufually follow upon taking of the Juice of Maniac, or upon the eating of the Juice with the Root, and what effects are thereby produced upon the Body, that infer it to be accounted a rank Poitbn «3 Whether any worfe Elfeéts, than may be caufed by meer Credit}, as by Turnips or Carrots eaten raw, and much more by raw Flefh, in thofe that are not urea thereto; or at mofi, fome fuch naufeous or noxious quality,as might be correéted in the taking and the preparation ,- which correction, if effected, might perhaps render the Bread, made of this 111M305; much heartier, the Juice being likely to paltry off the Spirit and firength,‘ leaving the remainder fpitit~ C S '3 re. The (636) to. The Palmetto-Royal being faid by Ligrm to be a v o'v tall and [height Tree, and {b tough, that none of them hav‘ "'een: feenblown down,and withall hollow; in-all which refpeét- \ey may fervefor fpecial ul'es, and particularly for long Optirk i r ‘e; ’tis much defired, that the largefi and longefl: pieces of em: thatcan be fiow’d in a Ship, may be fent over... II. Whether the Oyl expreffed out of the Plant Riciam or Palma Cbrzfli, be ufed by the Indian: to keep them from Vermin 2“ To (end over fome of that Oyl. . 12. Whether in the paITage of the Ifllzmm from Nomére ale Dio: to Panama, there is azwhole Wood full of Senlitive Trees, of which, as foon as they are touch-’d, the Leaves and Branches move with a ratling noife, andwind themfelves together into a roundifh Figure 1' 13. Whether there be certain Kernels of a Fruit like a white Pear-plum, which are very Purgative and E‘metick, but having the thin film which parteth them into halves taken out, they have no fuch Operation at all, and are as fweet as a Jordan» Almond ? 14. To fend over fome of the Roots of the Herb,,call’d by our French Author three anxflefcbe: (the Dart-bark) which being fiamped, is faid to have the vertue of curing the wounds made with poifon’d Darts. '15. To [end fame of the Grain of the Herb ka, putting it up carefully in aBox; which being done , it will keep its Maw/e (cent. 16. To fend over a Specimen of all Medicinal Herbs, together with their refpee‘tive Vertues, as they are reputed there: Item particularly, the Pris/clan;sz at the Harem/m; Macao, Mzzflz'c- tree, Lam/Z, Mahmud, yellow within; Five-fling, '1‘ idle-wood, White-wood, Barbadoés-Cea'ar. 17. Whether the fruit Mammz‘lle of the Mammi/lier—Tree, though admirably fair and fragrant, yet is fatalto the Eater, and falling into the Water, kills thelFifhes that eat thereof, ex- cept Crabs, who yet are {aid to be dangerous to eat when they have fed upon this fruit 5’ Whether under the Bark of this Tree is contained a certain glutinous Liquor as white as Milk, very dangerous, {0 that if you chance to rub it, and this Juice fpurt (637) f’purt upon the Shirt like a burning; if upon the naked flerh, it'wil‘l'cau‘fe a fwellin 5 if into the eye, blindnefs for feveral days: And whether t e [badow of this Tree be ['0 noxious, that the bodies of Men repofi'ng under it, will fwell f’trangel 7? And whethervthe Meat it felf, that is boil’d with the fire of t is Wood, contracts a malignity, burning'the Mouth and Throat? Further, whether the Natives ufe the milkyjuice of this Tree, and the Dew falling from it, and the juice of its Fruit, inthe compofition of the Poifon they infect their Arrows with 2’ II. Of Animal: and 122/685. 18. Hether the skin of the Tatum, and the little bone in his Tail, do indeed, as is related, cure deafilhnefs, and pains of the Ears! And whether this Animal be proof not only againfi the Teeth of Dogs, but alfo againf’t Bul- lets'! 19. Whether the Birds called Cam'der, be {0 docile, that; fome of them learn to fpeak not only Iridian, “but alfo Dutch and Spare/79, finging alfo the Ayres in the Indian Tongue as well as an Indian himfelf :‘ And whether the Bird Coliéry have a {cent as fweet as the finefi amber and Musk '3 Both which is affirmed by our Pram/7 Au- t or. 20. To procure fome of the fat of the Birds, called Fre» 84:2, reputed to be very Anti—paralytical and Anti»podagri- ca. 21. To {end over. a. Land-pike, which is {aid to be like the Water-pike, but that inflead of Fins it hath four feet, on which it crawls. 22. Whether the skin of the Sea-wolf, which they other- wife call the Requiem, be {‘0 ruff and (tiff, that they make Piles of them, fit to file Wood's And whether it be u-Fually guided by aucther Fifh, that is 'beautified with fuch avariety of curious and lively Colours, that one would fay, fuch Fillies were git: with Necklaces of Pearls, Corals , Eme- rauds, dw. Yyy 2.3. Wire: (638) 23. Whether the skin of Sea-Calf}, Otherwife call’d Lam”: ting! be fo hard, when dry’d, that they ferve the Indium for Shie d» c' 24. Whether the Allies of the Frefh-water Tortoifi: do hinder the falling of the Hair, being powder’d therewith t’ 25. Whether the Land—Crab: of thefe Ill-ands do at cer- tain times hide themfelves all under ground for the {pace of 6 weeks, and during that time change and renewrheir {hells 2' And whether in hiding themfelves thus, they do {0 carefully cover themfelves all about with Earth, that the opening thereof cannot at all be perceived, thereby {hurting out the Air, by which they might elfe be annoyed when they are quite naked, after they have lhed‘their (hells, there then remaining no other cover on them, but a very thin and tender skin, which by little thickeneth and hardeneth into a Crufi, like the old 6 26. Whether the Serpents in thol‘e parts, that have black and white fpots on their backs, be not venomousf To fend over fome of l‘uch Serpents skins. , 27. To fend over fome of the skins of more huge Li- zards, they call anyamam, which, when come to their full bignel's, are laid to be five foot long, Tail and all: And efpe- cially to fend fome of thofe that are laid to have the (bales of their skins {o bright and curious, that at a difiance they refemble Cloth of Gold and Silver. 28. Whether the fhining Flies, called Cmuycr, hide almofl: all their light, when taken, bUt when at liberty, afford it plenti- full ,2’ 2);. Whether there be a fort of Bees brown and blew, who make a black Wax, but the Honey in it whiter and fweeter than that of Europe. ‘ 30. Whether in thol'e parts the Indium do cure the bitings of Serpents by eating frefh Citron Pills, and by applying the Ungnent, made of the bruifed Head of the. wounding Serpent, and put hot upon the wound ? 31. Whether the Wood lice in thofe Countries generated out of rotten Wood, are. able, not only to eat through Trunks in a day or two, and to fpoil Linnen, Clorhes, and Books, (of which lafi they are (aid to {pare only what is written or printed ,) (639) printed5) but alfo to gnaw the props which fupport the Cottages, that they fall r And whether the remedy againfl the latter mifchief is, to turn the ends of the Wood that is fixed in the ground; or to rub the Wood with the Oyl of that kind of 1’4!sz Chrz‘fli (a Plant) wherewith the Natives rub their Heads to fecure them from Vermin. 32. Whether that fort of Vermin called Raven, fpare no- thing of what they meet with (either of Paper, Cloths, Lin- nen, and Woollen) but Silk and Cotton 2' 33. Whether the little Cirom called Cbz'qaer, bred out of dull, when they pierce once into the Feet, and under the Nails of the Toes, do get ground of the whole body, unlelsthey be drawn out betimesr And whether at firi’t they caufe but a little itch, but afterwards having pierced theskin, mile a great inflamation in the part affected, and become in a (hull time as big as aPmfi', producing innumerable Nils, that breed others. LA: to Inqrriries, concerning Earths and Minerals, the} ma} [,9 taken out of Numb. 19. and m for fur/J, which concern the confli- mtirm (f the Air, lrl'indr, and it rat/Jar, the} are to be met wit/1m Numb. it. To which latter fort may be added touching Harrie/1m, Wire- ther thoie terrible Winds, which are {aid to have formerly happen’d in thofe parts but once in 7 years, do now rage once in two years, and fometimes twice, yea thrice in one year! And whether they are Obferved never to fallout but about the wrramml Equinox, as His affirmed, that in the Erfl-Imi’fer beyond the Line,they never happen but abour the Venn/f Whe- ther they are preceded with an exrream Calm, and the Rain which falls 3 little before, be bitterilh and lhlt ’.’ And whether Birds come timely (him by whole flocks from the Hills, and hide theml‘elves in the Valleys, lying clole to the ground, to {come themlelves from the Tempeit approaching? Y y y 2 mm SCIENCE IN THE BRITISH COLONIES or AMERICA Appendixes few years by opening ye woods of ye Country as is commonly reported? I 8. Whether there be a foot—passage from Virginia to New England through Mary-land and yt not above an hundred miles; and if so, what plantations there are by ye way, and what distance from one another. 19. To observe the Variations of ye Needle from the Meredian ex— actly, in as many places as they can in their voyage. . 20. To mark carefully ye Ebbings and Flowing of ye Sea;,and therein: I. Ye precise times of ye Flood and Ebb. 2. wch way cur- rents run. 3. what perpendicular distance there is between the high- est reach of ye Tide, and lowest of ye Ebb, both of all their Springotides and Neap-tides. 4. What day of ye Moons age and ' what times of ye year ye highest and lowest tides fall out. 5. The 7 position of ye wind at every observation of the Tides. 21. To make a good Map of Virginia, and especially of ye coast . thereof, wth the Longitude, Latitude; and to sound the depth near the Coast in ye shallow places, roads etc. 21 [sic]. To sound ye deeper Seas Wthout a line.3 22. To keep a register of all changes of wind and Weather at all hours by night and day, shewing ye Point, ye wind blows from; as also the snows and ye Hurricanes, especially what season of ye year the latter happen most; and What are their prognosticks, concomi~ tants, and consequences. . 23. To observe and record all Extraordinary Meteors, lightnings, Thunders, lignes fatues, Comets. 24. To Carry wth ym good Scales and Glas—viols of a pint or so, Wth very narrow mouths, wch are to be filled with Sea-water in different degrees of Latitude, and ye weight of ye water to be taken exactly at every time, and recorded, marking wthall ye degrees of Long. and Latitude of ye place; and yt as well of water near ye top, as at a greater depth. IV. “Inquiries Recommended to Colonel [Sir Thomas] Linch going to Jamaica, London, Decem. 16, 1670.” [The Royal Society Archives contain several sets of inquiries addressed to the West Indies. One of the earliest of these, entitled “Inquiries for ye Antiles: out of ye French Naturall History of those iles1 and Lygon’s hist. of the Barbadoes”2 (Classified Papers, 1660—1740, XIX, No. 64, undated) was published in the Philo- sophical Transactions, III, No. 33 (March I6, 1667/68), 634—639. Another, labeled “Inquiries Concerning Bermudas recommended to Mr. Hotham going thither. March 7, 1669/70,” is very similar to that addressed to Edward Digges for Virginia (see Appendix III above), with some adaptations to the Bermuda scene. The following “Inquiries Recommended to Colonel Linch going to Jamaica, London, Decem. I6, I670,” though endorsed in Henry Oldenburg’s hand, “A Memoriall recommended to ye favour and care of Colonell Linch going to Jamaica,” appear, not in the Royal Society Archives, but among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Museum, possibly used by Sloane as a guide to his own activities when he went to Jamaica a few years later. See Sloane 3984, fols. . I94—I95v. Sir Thomas Lynch served as Governor of Jamaica, and the Royal Society’s “Inquiries” brought at least one response from him, noted in the Journal-Boole, IV, 252 (May 27, I672), as fol- lows: “Sir Robt Moray brought in an Account Concerning Cacao- Trees, their Planting 8: Culture, the way of cureing them, the observables in their fruit &c transmitted to him by Sir Thomas Linch from Jamaica.”] ‘ ‘ I. Whether in Jamaica every night it blows off ye Island every way at once, so that no ship can any where come in by night; nor goe out but early in the morning, before the Sea:brise come in? ' 2. Whether it be true, that old Seamen can tell you each island to- wards Evening by ye shape of ye Cloud over it; vpon this account, ETWM'réM'MID) 3 For the method, see Appendix I above. 1Charles de Rochefort, Histoire Naturelle et Morale des Isles Antilles de l’Amerique . . . (2nd ed., Rotterdam, I665). V 2 Richard Ligon, A True (3 Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes (London, I657). , 698 699 SCIENCE IN THE BRITISH COLONIES OF AMERICA Mountains? 3. Whether in the harbour of Iamaica there grow many Rockes, shaped like Bucks- and Staggs—horns; as also divers Sea-plants whose roots are stony? And whether of those Stone—trees (if I may so call -v 93x called Magotti Savanna, in wch whensoeuer it rains, ye rain as it setles vpon the seams of any garment turns in half an hour to mag— ym) some are insipid, others perfectly nitrous? . 4. Whetherthe Observation, whereby ye Seasons of ye year be- twixt ye Tropicks are divided by ye Rains and Faire weather, and i, six months are attributed to each Season, hold true at the Point in i 15. Whether ye Sugar in Iamaica cures faster in ten days, than that f5 at Barbados in six months? i 16. Whether ye wood of ye Tree, call’d ye Bastard—Cedar, be so there scarce fall 40 showers in a year, beginning in Augu5t and fall— ing to October inclusively; but six miles from ye Point, towards i porous (though close to via) yt being turn’d into Cupps, wine and brandy will soak through at ye bottom in a short time? ' 5 I7. Whether the Tree, call’d White—wood, in Iamaica, neuer breeds 5. Whether at ye Point of Iamaica, whereuer you dig five or Six 5_ any worms? wch if so, it would be good, among other uses, to build feet, ye water yt appears does ebb and flow? And whether it be true, that brackish water, though it be Vnwholesome for men, Salt Lixiviate, or Sulphur, or Oyle, wash better than any Castile- " , scape; but rot ye Linnen in_a short time? 19. Whether the several sorts of Tanning-barks, yt are in Iamaica, ' doe tann better than in England, and in six weeks the Leather there ‘~ tanned is ready to work into shoes? 5 20. Whether ye Palma Christi yields such an exceeding great quan— tity of oyle, yt, if it were minded, it might be made a Staple-Com- modity? And whether it be true, yt ye Indians and Negro’s make the leaues of it, applied to the Head, ye only remedy for their Head-ache? . , 2 I. To observe, whether the Shining or Fire-flyes can contract and expand their Light as they fly? And especially, whether their Light continues some days after they are dead? 22. Whether there be any Hurricans abOut Iamaica? And whether those, yt haue been in such winds, haue found it exceeding cold? ' Whether in Hurricans, ye wind varieth all the points of ye Com- passe; and ceaseth, when it comes East? 2 3. To observe the variation of ye Needle at Iamaica? 24. What is observable there in the Tydes? The precise times of ye I beginnings of ye F loud and Ebb? What perpendicular distance there 2 is between the highest reach of ye Tyde, and lowest of ye Ebb, Jamaica? Or whether it be so, as some relate, that at ye sd Point POI‘t morant, there be SCQI‘CC an afternoon for OI' . months, (be— 9 ginning from April) 111 WCh 1t rams not? prove wholesome for Hoggs? 6. Whether it be true, yt at ye laymans the brackish water be whole— some for men, insomuch yt many recover there by feeding on Tortises, and drinking no other water? 7. Whether the Bloud of Tortises be colder than any water there; and yet their Heart beat as vigorously, as yt of any Animal? 8. Whether it be true, yt the Urine of those, yt haue eaten the fat of Tortises, wch is said to be green, looks of a yellowish green and oily after eating it? 9. Whether in some parts of Iamaica you ride through woods yt are full of very large Timber, and yet seem to haue nothing of Earth, only firm rock to grow in? 10. Whether in some ground in Iamaica, yt is full of Salt—peter, yr Tobacco flasheth as it smoaketh? And'whether such nitrous To— bacco is subject to putrefaction? As also, whether the Potato’s, yt grow in ye Salt—peter—grounds there, ripen two months sooner than elsewhere; but if they be not spent presently, they rot? 1 1. Whether it be true, yt ye flowers of ye fruit, called the Sower- . sop, when they open, doe giue an extraordinary crack? 12. Whether Ants have been-obserVed to eat Brown Sugar White, and at last reduce it to an insipid powder? 700 Appendixes yt, as ye Sun declines, ye Clouds gather, and shape according to ye i" 13. Whether most brute creatures drink litle or nothing in Iamaica? And whether Horses in. Guanaboa neuer drink? Nor Cows in some places of ye island for six months? Parrots neuer; nor Civet-cats, but onCe a month? 14. Whether it be true, that in ye midst of Iamaica there is a Plain, gots; yet is yt plain healthfull to dwell in? ships of, if large enough. 18. Whether ye Berries of ye Swipe—tree, wthout any proportion of ‘701 SCIENCE IN THE BRITISH COLONIES OF AMERICA both of Spring-Tydes and Neap—Tydes, wth their Irregularities?_ What day of ye moons age, and what times of ye year ye highest and lowest Tydes fall out? Wch way ye Tyde setts etc? 24 [sic]. To send ouer some specimens of, ye Roots, Seeds, and Fruits of Iamaica. In ye doing of wch, ’tis desired, yt ye smaller fruits, being gathered, may be exposed in the Air and Shade, till." they are dry as raisins or figgs are usually made: That fruits of a, larger kind may be open’d, and dryed, ye stones and kernels being"- first taken out: That Seeds and Berries may be sent, when they are.” ready to drop off, wth as much husk and skins about ym as may be:“ That Roots may be wrapt vp in mosse or light Earth, and kept from any dashing of Sea-water in ye voyage: That Plants or young Trees may be set in half tubbs of Earth, arched over with hoops, and» cover’d wth matts to preserve ym also from ye dashing of sea—‘_ water; giuing ym Air every day, when the weather is fair, and ‘j watering ym wth fresh water once a day: To send all sorts of Pota- I, toes in Earth; and all sorts of Berries, grasses, grains and Herbs, wrapping vp ye seeds very dry in paper. 2 5. To observe, what considerable minerals, stones, Bitumens, Tinc- tures, and Druggs there are in Iamaica? 26. To try the raising of rice, olives, Coffee-berries, Currants, and the like, in Iamaica: As also to try, whether our late—ripe fruit here j in England, as all sorts of winter—pears and the like, will not ripen in Iamaica much sooner etc? The Answers, wch Col. Linch shall favour us wth, he is desired i to direct them to me, Henry Oldenburg, at my House in the Pal; mal, inclosing them in the pacquet, he shall send to Mr. Slingsby, or Sr Robert Moray, or whom else he writes to at Court. 702 Appendixes V. “Queries proposed to and answered by Captaine Guilleaume, and Mr. Baily, Concerning the voyage and Country of ye bottom of East-Hudson—hay, one of ye chief places for the Beaver-trader. By H[enry] Old[enhurg]. Read at ye Society Apr. 18, 16[72] , and order’d to he enterd.” [Volume XIX of the Classified Papers, 1660—1740 in the Royal Society Archives contains fifty-three sets of “Questions and An- swers,” dated between December 24, 1662, and March 14, 1670/ 71. Of these only a few relate to the British colonies and trading posts in North America, but two of them (Nos. 19-and 78) contain “Questions and Answers” regarding the Hudson’s Bay Company’s posts on Hudson’s Bay. The two contain essentially the same information, although it is organized somewhat differ- ently; N0. 19 extends the questions and answers to twenty-two, containing the same (or very nearly the same) data that No. 78 encompasses within sixteen paragraphs. It would appear that the two were notes taken by the two Secretaries of the Society in a common interview with Captain Zachariah Gillam and Charles Bailly, both in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Captain Gillam commanded the Rupert and served the company well until, in 1683, his son, Captain Benjamin Gillam, sailed out of _ Boston in the Batchelors Delight, to engage in trade in the Hud- son’s'Bay region as an interloper. This episode, which resulted in a considerable‘amount of official correspondence involving both King Charles II and the Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony,1 caused the company to suspect that Captain Zachariah Gillam was in collusion with his son and to suspend him from their service. Charles Bailly was the first Governor of the Hud- son’s Bay Company forts in Hudson’s Bay, having been released from the Tower of London (December 23, 1669) on condition that he would “betake himselfe to the Navigation of Hudsons Bay . which Sir John Robinson, Lieutenant of the Tower [and one of the adventurers in the Hudson’s Bay Company] hath un— 18cc Hudson’s Bay Company Archives, A-6, I, 32v, 37—39, 40 (Hudson’s, Bay House, London). 703 ...
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