Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Yasi Moshtael Fall 2009 HP 400...

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Unformatted text preview: Yasi Moshtael Fall 2009 HP 400 Final Exam Study Guide Section A – Culture, Lifestyle and Health; Health Disparities and Inequalities 1. Culture: A set of guidelines that tells us how to view the world, how to experience it emotionally, and how to behave in it. It is passed on from generation to generation by language, symbols, art, and rituals. a. Some other examples of definitions: i. “…any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” – Taylors ii. “…systems of shared ideas, systems of concepts and rules and meanings that underline and are expressed in the was that human beings live” – Keesing 2. Aspects of human life affected by culture: a. Attitudes toward illness b. Beliefs c. Behaviors d. Perceptions e. Emotions f. Language g. Religion h. Rituals i. Family structure j. Diet k. Dress l. Body image m. Concepts of space and time n. Pain and other misfortunes 3. Cultural definitions about anatomy and physiology: a. Shape, size, age, gender, social status, body gestures b. Belief about shape and size c. Belief about boundaries of the body d. Belief about body’s inner structure e. Belief about how body functions 4. Epidemiology: The study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. The goal of epidemiology is to discover factors that cause illness. a. Two types: i. Case control: study of a population suffering from a disease (ex: smoking & lung cancer) – correlational studies ii. Cohort study: follow-up a healthy population and evaluate risk factors and future occurrence of disease (ex: smoking and lung cancer) – cause and effect can be established 5. Cultural factors in the epidemiology of disease: a. Economic status i. Wealth distribution ii. Adequate income for housing, food, and clothing iii. Employment status iv. Poverty level v. Economic unit (individual, family) b. Family structure i. Nuclear, extended, one- parent or joint ii. Degree of family support iii. Individualist vs. collectivist society iv. Division of responsibility c. Gender roles i. Division of labor and responsibility ii. Appropriate behavior for each gender (drinking and smoking okay for men, not women) iii. Appropriate level of medication for men vs. women d. Marriage patterns i. Endogamous: marriage within same clan, tribe, community or culture (Increased likelihood of inherited diseases such as hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, etc) ii. Exogamous: marriage outside clan, tribe, community or culture e. Sexual behavior i. Pre-/extra-marital sexual relationships ii. Sexual norms for men vs. women iii. Attitudes toward prostitution iv. Taboos associated with sexual practices f. Contraceptive patterns i. Attitudes toward abortion, contraception, and condom use g. Population policy i. Optimal family size (one child in China) ii. Preference for a child’s gender (male in China) h. Pregnancy and child birth practices i. Behavior during pregnancy and birth ii. Breast feeding i. Child rearing practices i.i....
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Final Exam Study Guide - Yasi Moshtael Fall 2009 HP 400...

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