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Midterm%20#1 HP 400m FULL

Midterm%20#1 HP 400m FULL - MT 1 HP 400 Study Guide Fall...

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MT# 1 HP 400 Study Guide, Fall 2009 Class 1-9b Shahlapour From Lectures for Classes # 2 and 3 : 1. Culture - set of guidelines which tells us how to view the world, how to experience it emotionally, and how to behave in it. These guidelines are transmitted from one generation to another by the use of language, symbols, art, and rituals a. Taylors: knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society b. Keesing: systems of shared ideas, systems of concepts and rules and meanings that underlie and are expressed in the ways that human beings live 2. Aspects of human life influenced by culture a. Beliefs, behaviors, perceptions, emotions, language, religion, rituals, family structure, diet, dress, body image, concepts of space & time, attitudes toward illness, pain and other forms of misfortune 3. Cultural definitions of anatomy and physiology a. Belief about shape and size b. Belief about boundaries of the body c. Belief about body’s inner structure d. Belief about how body functions 4. Epidemiology – the study of distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. The goal of epidemiological studies is to discover factors that cause illness a. Case control - study of a population suffering from a disease (e.g. smoking & lung cancer). Correlational studies. b. Cohort - follow-up a healthy population and evaluate risk factors and future occurrence of disease (e.g. smoking & lung cancer). Cause and effect can be established. 5. Cultural factors in the epidemiology of disease a. Economic situation b. Family structure c. Gender roles d. Marriage patterns i. Endogamous vs. exogamous (endogamous marriages increase the likelihood of inherited diseases such as hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease) e. Sexual behavior i. Contraceptive patterns ii. Population policy f. Pregnancy and childbirth practices g. Child rearing practices h. Body image alterations i. Diet j. Fashion i. long dresses & veils (increased risk of osteomalacia, tuberculosis, and anemia) k. Personal hygiene l. Housing arrangements m. Sanitation practices n. Occupation i. occupational hazards (pneumoconiosis in coal miners, bladder cancer in dye workers, silicosis in metal grinders, mesotheliomas in asbestos workers) o. Religion
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p. Funerary custons i. Corpse displayed in public – spread of infectious disease q. Culturogenic stress r. Migrant status s. Seasonal travel i. Absence from home or family - higher rates of alcoholism and sexually transmitted diseases 6. Acculturation - The process by which individuals will incorporate some of the cultural attributes of the larger society. There are different degrees of acculturation and ways to assess the extent of acculturation. 7. Culture protecting against disease: Japan, Hawaii, & California : a. same genetic factors, but different environmental factors among people with Japanese ancestry lead to different rates and types of disease i. “nature & nurture” b. Culture and identification of disease i. differences in diagnostic criteria which leads to different labeling of disease 8. See 5 9.
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