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0222 Notes

# 0222 Notes - Does a single particle have a temperature 1 2...

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2/22/10 Oregon State University PH 202, Lecture 21 1 Does a single particle have a temperature? 1. Always. 2. Never. 3. Sometimes (when it has a fever).

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2/22/10 Oregon State University PH 202, Lecture 21 2 The Average Kinetic Energy of a Single Particle in an Ideal Gas With many particles bouncing around in the gas, the kinetic energy of any given particle changes many times per second (since its speed changes that often). We understand the overall (macroscopic) effect of all the changes via the average kinetic energy of a single particle. First, we recognize that the kinetic energy (K) of any body may have three different parts: ± Translational ( K T ) ± Rotational ( K R ) ± Vibrational ( K V ) But if we use only monatomic ideal gas particles, their K R and K V are negligible; we need only the average translational kinetic energy , K T.avg , of a single particle: K T.avg = [(1/2) m particle v 2 ] avg
2/22/10 Oregon State University PH 202, Lecture 21 3 For any gas, we know m particle is a constant. But how do we get an average for v 2 ? Couldn’t we just fi nd the average speed somehow, then square it? No.

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0222 Notes - Does a single particle have a temperature 1 2...

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