Alcohol - Verma 1 N atasha Verma The Effects of Alcohol Biology Lab 1407 Professor Hyak Verma 2 May 5 2009 The use of alcoholic beverages can be

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Verma 1 N atasha Verma The Effects of Alcohol Biology Lab 1407 Professor Hyak
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Verma 2 May 5, 2009 The use of alcoholic beverages can be dated back to 10,000 B.C. when late Stone Age beer jugs were discovered. Archeologists unraveled a four-thousand-year old Mesopotamian clay tablet. Encrypted on the ancient tablet was a recipe for beer, which happens to be the oldest recipe in the world according to the Beer Institute. Therefore, it is no surprise that alcohol has made its mark on history. Despite knowing the history of alcohol, it is important to understand its chemical composition, path through the body after consumption, effects and consequences, abuse, and syndromes. Alcohol is known as a depressant because it retards the central nervous system. It is found in alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and liquor. Palo Alto Medical Foundation states that alcohol is created by fermentation, a process in which the yeast fungus feeds on the sugars and/or starches in certain plants such as barley or grapes and excretes alcohol along with carbon dioxide. Alcohol has a mild odor due to this fermentation process. Alcohol is chemically known as ethanol, which refers to a group of compounds comprised of a hydrocarbon chain with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached at one end. Ethanol is a volatile, colorless, and flammable liquid with a molecular structure of C 2 H 5 OH. Alcohols tend to be miscible in liquid and other organic solvents because the hydroxyl group promotes solubility over the carbon group. Thus, alcohols
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Verma 3 are polar substances. Due to hydrogen bonding within the molecules, alcohols tend to have a higher boiling point than other hydrocarbons and ethers. With hydrogen bonding, alcohols can be used as protic solvents, which are solvents that have a hydrogen atom attached to oxygen. The path of alcohol begins at the mouth where it enters the body. Then, it is swallowed and pushed into the stomach where some alcohol gets absorbed by the bloodstream, but the majority of the alcohol continues its path into the small intestine. According to Brown University, approximately 20% of alcohol is absorbed through the stomach and most of the remaining 80% is absorbed through the small intestine. It enters through the walls of the small intestine because alcohol is a thin liquid. The alcohol is then pumped by the heart throughout the body. It eventually reaches the brain. In the liver, alcohol is oxidized at a rate of approximately 0.5 oz per hour depending on the amount of alcohol consumed. Alcohol is then finally converted into water, carbon dioxide, energy, and eliminated from the body.
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This note was uploaded on 03/27/2010 for the course BIO 206L taught by Professor Monica during the Winter '10 term at A.T. Still University.

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Alcohol - Verma 1 N atasha Verma The Effects of Alcohol Biology Lab 1407 Professor Hyak Verma 2 May 5 2009 The use of alcoholic beverages can be

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