ap07_env_sci_frq - AP® Environmental Science 2007...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: AP® Environmental Science 2007 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: www.collegeboard.com/inquiry/cbpermit.html. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. 2007 AP® ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SECTION II Time—90 minutes 4 Questions Directions: Answer all four questions, which are weighted equally; the suggested time is about 22 minutes for answering each question. Write all your answers on the pages following the questions in the pink booklet. Where calculations are required, clearly show how you arrived at your answer. Where explanation or discussion is required, support your answers with relevant information and/or specific examples. 1. Read the Fremont Examiner article below and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify ONE component of the sewage that is targeted for removal by primary treatment and ONE component of the sewage that is targeted for removal by secondary treatment. (b) For EACH of the pollutants that you identified in part (a), describe how the pollutant is removed in the treatment process. (c) Explain how sewage treatment plants create the solid waste problem that Dr. Goodwin mentioned in the article. (d) Two common methods of disposing of solid waste from sewage treatment plants are transporting it to a landfill or spreading it onto agricultural lands. Describe an environmental problem associated with EACH of these methods. (e) The final step in sewage treatment is disinfection. Identify ONE pollutant that is targeted during disinfection and identify ONE commonly used method of disinfection. (f) Identify ONE United States federal law that requires monitoring the quality of the treated sewage that is discharged into the Fremont River. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 2007 AP® ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 2. The Cobb family of Fremont is looking at ways to decrease their home water and energy usage. Their current electric hot-water heater raises the water temperature to 140°F, which requires 0.20 kWh/gallon at a cost of $0.10/kWh. Each person in the family of four showers once a day for an average of 10 minutes per shower. The shower has a flow rate of 5.0 gallons per minute. (a) Calculate the following. Be sure to show all your work and include units with your answers. (i) The total amount of water that the family uses per year for taking showers (ii) The annual cost of the electricity for the family showers, assuming that 2.5 gallons per minute of the water used is from the hot-water heater (b) The family is considering replacing their current hot-water heater with a new energy-efficient hot-water heater that costs $1,000 and uses half the energy that their current hot-water heater uses. How many days would it take for the new hot-water heater to recover the $1,000 initial cost? (c) Describe TWO practical measures that the family could take that would reduce their overall water use at home. (d) Describe TWO conservation measures (other than reducing hot water use) that the family could take to reduce the total amount of energy that they use at home. 3. In the mid 1970s, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina predicted a thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer over Antarctica. The thinning was confirmed in the late twentieth century and has continued into the twenty-first century. (a) Identify the class of chemical compounds that is primarily responsible for the thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer and describe TWO major uses for which these chemicals were manufactured. (b) Describe how the chemical compounds that you identified in part (a) destroy stratospheric ozone molecules. You may include chemical equations as part of your answer. (c) Identify the major environmental consequence of the depletion of stratospheric ozone and describe TWO effects on ecosystems and/or human health that can result. (d) Ozone formed at ground level is a harmful pollutant. Describe TWO effects that ground-level ozone can have on ecosystems and/or human health. © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 2007 AP® ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 4. Some scientists estimate that by 2025 over 60 percent of the global human population will live in urban areas. Urban residents experience a variety of problems related to the physical environment. (a) Describe how the temperature of urban areas like Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Chicago differs from that of surrounding rural areas. (b) Identify and describe TWO differences between urban and surrounding rural areas that contribute to the temperature difference between them. (c) Urban areas typically have levels of air pollution that are significantly higher than those found in surrounding rural areas. Identify a characteristic of the urban microclimate that leads to higher levels of air pollution and describe how that characteristic contributes to the increase. (d) Identify and describe TWO actions that local governments in urban areas could take to reduce outdoor air pollution. (e) Identify and describe TWO ways in which the local hydrologic cycle of urban areas differs from that of nearby rural areas. STOP END OF EXAM © 2007 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit apcentral.collegeboard.com (for AP professionals) and www.collegeboard.com/apstudents (for students and parents). -4- ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online