helpsheet_2_batterton

helpsheet_2_batterton - Chemistry 104, Dr. Batterton Help...

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Chemistry 104, Dr. Batterton Help Sheet #2 – Review Material; Chapters 2, 3, 4, 8, and 11 Tony Jacob Nuggets: Mole Calc (2.9); Balance Rxns (3.1, 3.2); Stoichiometric Calculations (4.1); Limiting Reagents (4.2); Percent Yield (4.3); Molarity (4.5); Electronegativity (8.7); Ideal Gas Law (11.3, 11.4) CHAPTER 2 MOLE CALCUATIONS: converting between grams, moles, atoms, molecules; none of these were on the handout from lecture but some of these are needed for reaction stoichiometry. CHAPTER 3 BALANCING REACTIONS CHAPTER 4 STOICHIOMETRY : Given a chemical reaction and the quantity of one of the reagents in the equation, be able to determine the quantities of all the other reagents in the reaction. LIMITING REAGENTS: one reagent runs out first; this is the limiting reagent PERCENT YIELD = actual yield theoretical yield x 100% actual yield = the actual amount obtained (given in the problem) theoretical yield = calculated amount MOLARITY – concentration of solutions; abbreviated as M (pronounced “molar”) M = moles solute L solution Solute: The chemical that is dissolved into the solvent Solvent: The liquid that the solute is dissolved into Solution: Solvent + Solute Dilution - this equation is only used with dilutions M 1 x V 1 = M 2 x V 2 where M 1 and M 2 are the molarities of the initial and final solutions, respectively; V 1 and V 2 are the volumes of the initial and final solutions, respectively; V 2 = V 1 + water added CHAPTER 8 ELECTRONEGATIVITY (EN): The degree to which an atom can attract an e - in a bond The greater the electronegativity, the greater the "pull" an atom has on an e - . Trend: Increases toward F. increasing
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BOND POLARITY: Greater Δ EN the more polar, the more ionic, and the less covalent the bond is. Δ EN = 0 nonpolar bond (same atoms typically) Δ EN > 0 polar bond As the 2 atoms being compared get further apart on the Periodic Table, the Δ EN becomes greater Polar bond: A bond in which the e - are pulled closer to one of the atoms ( Δ EN 0). A slightly positive charge resides on one atom and a slightly negative charge resides on the other atom. The polarity arrow points toward the negative side of the bond. ( ) CHAPTER 11 Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT n = #moles; P in atm; V in L; T in K; R = 0.0821 L atm mol K ; 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 1 atm
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helpsheet_2_batterton - Chemistry 104, Dr. Batterton Help...

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