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bio final review - CH 1 living organisms are comprised of a...

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CH. 1 - living organisms are comprised of a cell or cells, has DNA, reproduce, metabolize, and evolve. - Biological hierarchy: atoms molecule cell tissue organ organism population community biosphere - Scientific method (hypothesis): observe ask questions form hypothesis (knowledge base, falsifiable, identify factors) make predictions test predictions CH. 2 - polar covalent bond : unequal sharing of electrons, bonded atoms have significantly different electronegativities creating partial charges ( HYDROPHILLIC: hydrogen bonding between water molecules and polar molecules) - nonpolar covalent bond : equal sharing or close to it (C-H); no partial charge; bonded atoms have similar or identical electronegativities ( HYDROPHOBIC: attraction of nonpolar molecules for each other in presence of water) - hydrogen bonding : electrical attraction between H atom of polar covalent bond and another more electronegative atom - ionic bond : gain/loss of electrons between atoms creating oppositely charged ions (anions/cations) - acids release H+ and have pH < 7 - bases accept H+ and have pH > 7 CH. 3 - carbohydrates : CH20; monosaccharide (energy source) oligo- polysaccharide (energy storage); glucose; glycogen, cellulose, starch - lipids : hydrophobic in nature; fatty acids, triglyceride, phospholipids - proteins : amino acid peptide polypeptide; 1. primary structure: polypeptide chain 2. a) alpha helix - provides elasticity b) beta pleaded sheet – provides strength, flexibility 3. tertiary structure: polypeptides fold 4. quaternary structure: polypeptides assemble into larger molecules - nucleic acids : DNA, RNA, nucleotide CH. 4 - cell theory (schleiden & schwann): all organisms are composed of cells, all cells come from pre-existing cells, cells are fundamental units of life. - Eukaryotes : double membrane bound nucleus, has organelles, flagella and cilia, extensive with 3 types of fibers, plant cells have cell walls (cellulose)
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- Prokaryotes : nucleoid, no organelles, flagella, some have actin filaments, capsules, outer membrane, cell wall (peptidoglycan) - Organelles : mitochondria, chloroplast, rough and smooth ER, nucleus, lysosomes, golgi, cytoskeleton - Pathway of secreted protein : RER golgi plasma membrane CH. 5 - simple diffusion : no external energy required; with concentration gradient; no membrane protein required, NOT SPECIFIC - facilitated diffusion : no external energy; with concentration gradient; membrane protein required, SPECIFIC - active transport : external energy, AGAINST concentration gradient; ATP hydrolysis; membrane protein, SPECIFIC -
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