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Unformatted text preview: KIN 4512 Exam 2 Chapter 4 Prenatal Developmental Concerns Negatives Teratogens Any environmental agent that causes harm to the embryo or fetus Many people think the maternal environment is a protective shelter but teratogens can find their way through it and negatively affect the embryo The damage depends on the amount taken or the time of the exposure Most dangerous is between weeks 3 and 8 of gestation Birth defects: 25% genetics; 65% unknown; 10% teratogens Thalidomide Thought to be a tranquilizer for morning sickness 1940-50 Responsible for over 5000 malformed births Reason they did not come out with the same malformation was because difference in time and dosage. Whatever was the emphasis of growth during the exposure was affected the most. Why prenatal concerns? With moreknowledge of the prenatal period we can Reduce risk and prescribe appropriate activities Epigenetic Periods Gene and environment interaction Period of time when the embryo is most susceptible to harm At 9 weeks it is 3 inches and 1 ounce Teratogens introduced in later period are less severe Look at the picture in the slide show Drugs and Medications Caffeine: a stimulant Causes retarded fetal growth, low birth weight, and hyperactivity Alcohol Prevalence: over 130,000 pregnant women drink and cause birth defects; 13% pregnant women; 3% are binge drinkers and 4% are frequent drinkers There is NO safe dosage Birth defects: fetal alcohol syndrome, Alcohol Related Disorders (ARND) it is less severe, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) causes withdrawal symptoms in infants Neonatal: birth to 22 days after birth Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Growth deficiency: weight and length below 10 th percentile, microcephaly, increased risk of congenital anomalies, and decreased adipose tissue CNS dysfunctions: 50% exhibit poor motor coordination, weak sucking reflex, IQ less than 70, increased reaction time, myopia, sensioneural hearing loss, irritability, hypotonia, increased risk for seizures, delayed language development, fine motor impairment, ADHD Craniofacial abnormalities: epicanthic folds around eyes, obstruction of upper airways, cleft palate Cocaine 25% chance of preterm birth Side effects: brain damage, miscarriage, reduced preterm, heart rate fluctuates, and SIDS Crack Babies: mental retardation, extreme irritability, fine/gross motor problems Myth: poor women using federal money to buy more drugs Tobacco Stimulate adrenals Carbon monoxide and nicotine by-products 12-22% of pregnant women smoke Maternal complications: breast milk Release epinephren, carbon monoxide interferes with oxygen carrying Fetal hypoxia, premature birth, still birth, retardation of growth, low birth weight, SIDS, respiratory problems Behavior effects: reduced mental/visual alertness Marijuana Little conclusive research; research results are mixed...
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2010 for the course KIN 4512 taught by Professor Reeve during the Spring '09 term at LSU.
- Spring '09