Innate immunity

Innate immunity - I . The Immune System:There are two basic...

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I. The Immune System:There are two basic arms of the immune system: A. Acquired Immunity 1. Also called cognate immunity because it is a learned response to the infecting organism . We are exposed to the specific microbe and the acquired immune system will learn to recognize it and respond to it. a. Example, we have measles when we are children, but our immune system learns to identify that specific pathogen and is ready for subsequent exposures. b. It has acquired the ability to recognize that pathogen. 2. Very specific, but it takes time to become activated , not just hours, but days. This is a problem because bacteria can quickly multiply – exponentially II. Innate immunity – non-specific immunity A. It is the first line of host defense, typically works by blocking the invasion or the invasive properties of the microbe or its replication. First line of defense against everything 1. You acquire it at birth-or they are things that come with our body. 2. Something that is non-specific, meaning it isn’t directed against one specific pathogen or organism 3. You don’t have to have previous exposure to an organism to have this type of immunity. III. Overview of natural immunity or the rapid response immune system (Fig. 15.3) A. First line defenses 1. Physical barriers (Fig. 15.1) – impenetrable barriers – these barriers separate the interior of the body from the surrounding environment; they are the initial obstacles microorganisms must over come to invade tissues. a. Epithelium (Fig 15.2) – p. 348 – Epithelial barriers – cells of these barriers are tightly packed together and rest on a layer of thin 1
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fibrous material, the basement membrane. Note that some epithelial cells have cilia which propel material to an area where it can be eliminated. b. Stratified squamous epithelium -overlapping epithelial cells that becomes keratinized ( holds water in and keeps stuff out) to seal the surface of our body. – then skin flakes off as dead skin – if a virus gets on your skin and infects a dead cell, it cant do anything with it c. Mucous membranes – line the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and genitourinary tract. 1) Ciliated stratified /pseudostratified columnar epithelium – the most important thing are the cilia – if the cilia stop working, we get sick – respiratory diseases attack cilia. 2) Mucous made by goblet cells in ciliated columnar epithelium the thicker the mucous is, the better it works – then cilia moves the mucous with the bacteria to an area that it will be destroyed 3) cilia moves the mucous along- move in unison, pulls pathogens and such along so that it may be destroyed – the hairlike cilia constantly beat in an upward motion, propelling materials away from the lungs to the throat where they can then be swallowed. This is referred to as the
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Innate immunity - I . The Immune System:There are two basic...

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