SolarRadiation

SolarRadiation - 2637 Earth 1.00 1367 Mars 1.52 592 Jupiter...

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Solar Radiation
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Outline Radiation The Solar Constant Variations in Solar Radiation
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I. Radiation Everything emits radiation (in the form of electromagnetic energy ) Transmitted as a sequence of waves All forms of EM radiation travel at 300,000 km s -1
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Electromagnetic Spectrum (wavelengths)
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A. Intensity amount of radiation emitted Stefan-Boltzman Law I = σ T4 I = intensity, σ = constant, T = temperature * Only truly valid for blackbodies (perfect emitters and absorbers of energy)
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B. Quality wavelength Wien’s Law λ max = 2900 / T λ max = wavelength of peak emission, T = temperature
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Sun emits mostly shortwave radiation Earth emits mostly longwave radiation
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II. Solar Constant amount of solar energy received by a surface perpendicular to the sun Inverse Square Law Solar Constant = Total solar emissions / 4 π r2 r = distance from Sun to other object Each planet has its own solar constant (e.g., Earth 1367 W m -2 , Mars = 445 W m -2 )
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AU SC Mercury 0.39 8988 Venus 0.72
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Unformatted text preview: 2637 Earth 1.00 1367 Mars 1.52 592 Jupiter 5.20 51 Saturn 9.54 15 Uranus 19.18 4 Neptune 30.10 2 Pluto 39.44 1 III. Variations in Solar Radiation • Changes across latitudes and over time • Caused by the fact that the Earth is a “sphere” that is also tilted December 21 Path around Sun is Elliptical at the Present Time Atlanta (33.8 º N) vs. Anchorage (61.2 º N) Date Sunrise Sunset Period of Daylight June 21 6:27 A.M. 4:20 A.M. 8:52 P.M. 11:43 P.M. 14 hr. 24 min. 19 hr. 22 min. September 21 7:25 A.M. 7:41 A.M. 7:36 P.M. 8:02 P.M. 12 hr. 11 min. 12 hr. 20 min. December 21 7:39 A.M. 10:14 A.M. 5:33 P.M. 3:41 P.M. 9 hr. 54 min. 5 hr. 27 min. NAS 80 ° 57 ° 33 ° 52 ° 29 ° 6 ° Major Results: • Much more beam spreading at Reykjavik • Much more variation in period of daylight at Reykjavik Initial Factors Controlling Absorbed Solar Radiation • Solar Angle • Period of Daylight...
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SolarRadiation - 2637 Earth 1.00 1367 Mars 1.52 592 Jupiter...

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