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EVE100_380-412_2pp

EVE100_380-412_2pp - Comparative Method The search for...

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3/8/10 1 380 Comparative Method The search for general patterns of evolution Correlated evolution of particular traits Temporal patterns of trait evolution 381 Fut. 11.2
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3/8/10 2 Felsenstein 1985 383 Assuming each species is an independent data point is like assuming a star phylogeny But what if the phylogeny really looks like this 384 See Fut. 11.21
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3/8/10 3 385 An example from plants 385 What is the connection between plant mating system and seed type? Fleshy Dry Monoecious 45 339 Dioecious 420 18 Fleshy fruits – animal dispersal Dry fruits – wind dispersal Monoecious – male and female flowers on one plant Dioecious – plant has either only male flowers or only female flowers Givnish 1980
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3/8/10 4 Character state transitions represent independent data points gain of dioecy loss of dioecy Donoghue 1989 dry fleshy * dioecious equivocal 386 Fleshy Dry ? Gains of dioecy 5 1 1 Losses of dioecy 2 0 0 Independent Contrasts Felsenstein 1985 388
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3/8/10 5 388 Change in character X Change in character Y Taxa A vs B Taxa G vs H Taxa C vs D Taxa E vs F Example Independent Contrast 390 Summers & Clough 2001
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3/8/10 6 Example Independent Contrast Summers & Clough 2001 392 Whittall & Hodges 2007 Pollination syndrome bumblebee hummingbird hawkmoth 394 Evolution of nectar spurs in columbines
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3/8/10 7 Whittall&Hodges 2007 393 Evolution of limb reduction in lizards – Wiens and Slingluff 2001
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3/8/10 8 Phylogenetics & Cospeciation Ridley Fig. 22.8 397 395 The history of life
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