Organic Overheads for Goals 47 and 48

Organic Overheads for Goals 47 and 48 - These can react...

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Goal 47: Organic Molecules—functional groups Organic chemistry concerns itself with carbon compounds and the families of organic molecules are described by “functional groups”. A functional group is an atom or group of atoms within a molecule that gives it the characteristic properties observed. Learn those listed in Table 12.1. Note “R” just implies hydrocarbon attached to the functional group. GOAL 48: Hydrocarbon families: 1. Alkanes (only C-C) with sp 3 hybridized C 2. Alkenes (C=C) and that means sp 2 hybridized 3. Alkynes (C C) and those are sp hybridized Saturated hydrocarbons have maximum ratio of H:C atoms, so that would be the alkanes.
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons include alkenes and alkynes.
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Unformatted text preview: These can react with H 2 to form alkanes (now saturated). A homologous series is a set of related organic molecules differing by one or more CH 2- groups. NOTE: As the straight-chain alkanes grow in size and molar mass, their mp and bp increase. See Table 12.2, but look only at trends. NAMING and DRAWING AlKANES: Learn Tables 12.3 and 12.4! 1. Find longest continuous chain and use prefixes to describe its length. 2. Ending gives functional group. 3. Identify any branches and end with yl. 4. Locate branches with lowest numbers possible . 5. Multiple groups as branches? If identical groups: Indicate with di-, tri-, etc. If different branches: List alphabetically....
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Organic Overheads for Goals 47 and 48 - These can react...

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