Acid-Base Chem Overheads for Spring 20100

Acid-Base Chem Overheads for Spring 20100 - 3. An acid-base...

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GOAL 33: Review of Acid/Base Chemistry Re-read and study Ch. 4.5 Arrhenius’ definitions: An acid produces H + in aqueous soln. A base produces OH - in aqueous soln. Table 4.4 gives strong acids and bases which ionize almost 100% in water. Now add Table 16.2 (strong acids) and Table 16.4 (strong bases) 1. HNO 3 (aq) 2. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 3. NaOH in water 4. CH 3 NH 2 in water Practice neutralizations, too. Ex. CH 3 NH 2 + HCl
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Mg(OH) 2 + HCl GOAL 34: A new definition to help us! The Bronsted-Lowry Definition: An acid is a H + donor. A base is a H + acceptor. Most often we use H + in its hydrated form, an H 3 O + ion. Examples: 1. CH 3 NH 2 + H 2 O 2. HC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 O 3. NH 3 + HCO 3 - Look for an acid and its conjugate base and the base and its conjugate acid. Conjugate pairs differ by only one H + .
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Note: Water can be either an acid or a base depending on its partner…it is amphiprotic. GOAL 35: Relative Acid/Base Strengths Observations: 1. Stronger acids have weaker conjugate bases. (See Figure 16.3) 2. Stronger bases have weaker conjugate acids.
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Unformatted text preview: 3. An acid-base reaction is favored in the direction from stronger to weaker. How can we predict without the figure? Three cases to consider: 1. Binary Acids a) Nonmetal in same group (column) As go down the group acid strength increases as bond between H and nm gets weaker. HF < HCl as acid b) Nonmetal in same period (row) As go across the row to the right the acid strength increases as polarity in the H and nm bond increases. H 2 O < HF as acid 2. Oxoacids (See Figures 16.9-16.11) Now the effects of other groups on the H and O bond are what matter. a) as the nonmetal increases in EN, acidity increases b) as the number of terminal oxygens on the acid increases, acidity increases 3. Carboxylic acids a) As electronegative (electron withdrawing groups) are added, acid strength increases. b) The closer the electronegative groups are to the acidic group, the stronger the acid....
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Acid-Base Chem Overheads for Spring 20100 - 3. An acid-base...

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