Lec 11 - Derivation Basic derivational operations A...

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Derivation Basic derivational operations A taxonomy of typical lexeme-formation operations Productivity What does it mean to be a productive word-formation operation? How does one calculate productivity? Order of afFxes Are there tendencies for afFxes with certain meanings to be ordered relative to one another?
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3 main types of morphological relations Infection, derivation, and compounding Infectional morphology modiFes properties o± LEXEMES , while maintaining the basic meaning o± the LEXEME . mor-ikse ľ -i- ń mor-ikse ľ -i- ť sing- DES - PAST -1 SG sing- DES - PAST -2 SG `I wanted to sing’ `you wanted to sing’ (Erzya Mordvin)
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3 main types of morphological relations Infection, derivation, and compounding Derivation relates lexemes in a word Family e a-ms V e a-ma N live- IN± live- NR = `liFe’ (Erzya Mordvin) Compounding combines LEXEMES repül- ő -gép-gyart-ás (Hungarian) fy-er-machine-produce- NR `airplane production’
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Prototypical differences between inFection and derivation Derivation Infection 1. Encodes lexical meaning Encodes grammatical meaning 2. Not syntactically relevant Syntactically relevant 3. Occurs close to the root & Occurs outside all derivation inside other derivation 4. OFten changes lexical Does not change lexical category category 5. OFten semantically opaque Usually semantically obvious 6. OFten shows restricted ±ully productive productivity 7. Optional Obligatory Derivation -------------------------------- Infection
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Basic derivational (lexme-formation) operations Permits the expansion of the lexicon of a language Category-maintaining operations: V V CAUS : olvas `read’ olvas-tat `make read’ legel `graze’ legel-tet `make graze’
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Structures without Heads V V CAUS : olvas `read’ olvas-tat `make read’ [ olvas ] v [[ olvas ] v [tat] v ] v where [tat] v is listed in the lexicon as a “verb” which combines with verb, i.e. [ x ] v to create a VERB. So, the lexicon contains verbs such as `olvas’ and morphemes such as [tat] which combine to form new verbs. SufFxes are interpreted as “head” which determine the properties of the larger structures of which they are a part: V V olvas V ( = Head) tat
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V V CAUS : olvas `read’ olvas-tat `make read’ [ olvas ] v [[ olvas ] v tat] v where [tat] is simply a formative in a template for complex verbal derivations for causatives. So, the lexicon contains verbs such as `olvas’ and templates containing e.g. [tat] which serve to form new verbs. V V olvas V tat
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Basic derivational (lexeme-formation) operations Permits the expansion of the lexicon of a language Category-changing operations: A Adv: meleg `warm’ meleg-en `warmly’ csunya `ugly’ csunyá-n `in an ugly way’ V N: énekel `sing’ énekl- ő `a singer’ sír `weep’ sír-ó `a weeper’ N/V A: felh ő `cloud’ felh ő -tlen `cloudless’ mos `wash’ mos-atlan `unwashed’ A V szép `beautiful szép-ül `become beautiful’
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unactualizability
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Lec 11 - Derivation Basic derivational operations A...

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