Lec 7-8 - Words in morphology (following Blevins 2007) We...

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Words in morphology (following Blevins 2007) We can distinguish between notions of ‘word’ in terms of different level of abstraction. A LEXEME is a ‘dictionary word’, an abstract entity, written in SMALL CAPS A word form is a concrete orthographic or phonological entity A morphosyntactic word is a particular combination of morphosyntactic features A paradigm is a set of word forms (or morphosyntactic words) which belong to a particular lexeme A word family is a set of related lexemes
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Three dimensions of wordhood Lexeme Word form WALK(V) walk walks walking walked Morphosyntactic word WALK(V)+1SG+PRES WALK(V)+INF WALK(V)+3SG+PRES WALK(N)+SG WALK(N) WALK(N)+PL
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Lexical units (following Blevins 2007) Lexeme (or lexical item): An abstract lexical construct, i.e., it is in some ways analagous to the abstract construct phoneme in the sense that both are convenient ways to talk about what unifes a set oF wordForms or a set oF actually pronounced sounds. ±or example, the actual word books is the plural Form oF the lexeme BOOK and ate is the past tense Form oF the lexeme EAT .
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Lexical units (following Blevins 2007) Root (or radical form): A basic, unanalyzable form of a lexeme. frag- is the root of the German verb FRAGEN ‘ask’, underlying ±nite forms such as frag-st ‘ask.2sg’, non±nite forms such as frag-en ‘to ask’ and even derived adjectives such as frag-lich ‘dubious’.
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Lexical units (following Blevins 2007) Stem: a lexical form that is larger than a root and that, like a root, underlies a set of word forms. So, the German ‘stem’, fragte - is based on the rooo frag- and serves as a base for the wordforms in the past tense paradigm. For example, fragte-st ‘2sg’, fragte ‘3sg’, fragte-n ‘1pl’, fragte-t ‘2pl’. ..
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Lexical units (following Blevins 2007) Word (or word form): A ‘free’ (morphologically independent) form of a lexeme. So, all of the inFected forms fragte-st ‘2sg’, fragte ‘3sg’, fragte-n ‘1pl’, fragte-t ‘2pl’. .. are words, since they can occur as independent elements in syntax.
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Morphological exponents (following Blevins 2007) A morphological exponent is any formal characteristic that ‘realizes’, ‘marks’, Segmental (or afFxal): A property is realized by a segmental formative. SufFxation : In books, the property plural is realized by the sufFx - s. PreFxation : In ungrammatical, negation is realized by the preFx un-. InFxation: In Tagalog, um is preFxed to vowel-initial verb roots but inFxed after the initial consonant of consonant-initial roots (Aspillera 1981:45-46): alís umalís ‘to leave’ vs bása bumása ‘to read’.
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Morphological exponents (following Blevins 2007) CircumFxation: In Chukchee, privative case is formed by sufFxing -ka to vowel-initial noun roots but by circumFxing e/a ka to consonant initial roots (Spencer 2000): ococ ‘leader’ ococ-ka ‘leaderless’ vs titi ‘needle’
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Lec 7-8 - Words in morphology (following Blevins 2007) We...

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