Final Lectures

Final Lectures - Interface with results from quantitative...

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Interface with results from quantitative modelling: rulers v. rules
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Interface with results from quantitative modelling: rulers v. rules What’s the likely linking element? shaap - ? - oog sheep eye
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Interface with results from quantitative modelling: rulers v. rules
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Word and Paradigm Traditional WP models are exemplar or analogy based, rather than rule-based – The forms of an inFectional system are organized into paradigms. – Each paradigm contains one or more diagnostic or ‘leading’ form helps guide hypotheses about what unknown members of the paradigm look like. – New items are inFected by analogy to an established paradigm.
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Word and Paradigm Examplar-based systems based on analogy; distillation of abstract patterns based on many exemplars. Paradigmatic: identiFes (sets of) patterns that whole words participate in, i.e., the contrast sets that wholes participate in. ConFgurative: while the meaning of a wordform is not necessarily construed as a straightforward composition of individually meaningful parts, the meaning of the whole is associated with reli- able arrangements of its constitutive elements, i.e. it is the arrangement of coocurring proper-ties of words that are associated with the whole word meaning, rather than the meaning being derived from its constituent parts. Horiziontal: relations among networks of in±ected surface forms which share a lexeme as well as the schematic patterns of implications abstracted from them on the basis of analogy.
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Internal organization: words as recombinant gestalts Surface words, expressed synthetically (single morphonologically integrated wordform) or periphrastically (multiple word forms as in Somali & Dhaasanac below), are construed as recombinant gestalts, i. e., ensembles/patterns of recurrent elements where it is not necessarily the smaller pieces that are meaningful, but rather the speciFc conFgurations of elements that are associated with meaning. “…we cannot but conclude that linguistic form may and should be studied as types of patterning, apart from the associated functions.” Sapir 1921:60 “This feeling for form as such, freely expanding along predetermined lines and greatly inhibited in certain directions by the lack of controlling types of patterning, should be more clearly understood than it seems to be. A general survey of many diverse types of languages is needed to give us the proper perspective on this point.” Sapir 1921:61
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External organization: words as participants in networks of relations Existing forms provide a basis for deductions using proportional analogy (Wurzel 1989, Pirrelli 2000, and many others) A : B = C : X, where A : B refers to an established pattern, C is a word, and X is the unknown word that must be ‘solved for’. Meaningfulness of forms arises from contrastivity, requiring
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Final Lectures - Interface with results from quantitative...

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