1 CHAPTER 1Electronic Structure and Bonding • Acids and BasesImportant Termsacida substance that donates a proton. acid-base reactiona reaction in which an acid donates a proton to a base. acid dissociation constanta measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates. acidity a measure of how easily a compound gives up a proton. antibonding moleculara molecular orbital that results when twoatomic orbitals with opposite orbital phases interact. Electrons in an antibonding orbital decrease bond strength. atomic number tells how many protons (or electrons) the neutral atom has. atomic orbital an orbital associated with an atom. atomic weightthe average mass of the atoms in the naturally occurring element. aufbau principlestates that an electron will always go into the available orbital with the lowest energy. basea substance that accepts a proton. basicity describes the tendency of a compound to share its electrons with a proton. bond dissociation energy the amount of energy required to break a bond homolytically (each of the atoms retains one of the bonding electrons) or the amount of energy released when a bond is formed. bonding molecular a molecular orbital that results when two atomic orbitals with the same phase orbital interact. Electrons in a bonding orbital increase bond strength. bond length the internuclear distance between two atoms at minimum energy (maximum stability). Brønsted acid a substance that donates a proton. Brønsted base a substance that accepts a proton. buffer solution solution of a weak acid and its conjugate base. carbaniona species containing a negatively charged carbon. carbocationa species containing a positively charged carbon. condensed structurea structure that does not show some (or all) of the covalent bonds.
2 Chapter 1 conjugate acid the species formed when a base accepts a proton. conjugate basethe species formed when an acid loses a proton. core electronselectrons in filled shells. covalent bonda bond created as a result of sharing electrons. degenerate orbitals orbitals that have the same energy. delocalized electrons electrons that do not belong to a single atom nor are they shared in a bond between two atoms. dipolea positive end and a negative end. dipole moment (µ)a measure of the separation of charge in a bond or in a molecule. double bond composed ofa sigma bond and a pi bond. electron affinity the energy given off when an atom acquires an electron. electronegativedescribes an element that readily acquires an electron. electronegativity the tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself. electropositivedescribes an element that readily loses an electron. electrostatic attractionan attractive force between opposite charges.
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