03%20Ch02 - CHAPTER 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds:...

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57 CHAPTER 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds: Nomenclature, Physical Properties, and Representation of Structure Important Terms alcohol a compound with an OH group in place of one of the hydrogens of an alkane (ROH). alkane a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds. alkyl halide a compound with a halogen in place of one of the hydrogens of an alkane. alkyl substituent a substituent formed by removing a hydrogen from an alkane. amine a compound in which one or more of the hydrogens of NH 3 is replaced by an alkyl substituent 22 3 (RNH , R NH, R N). angle strain the strain introduced into a molecule as a result of its bond angles being distorted from their ideal values. anti conformer the staggered conformer in which the largest substituents bonded to the two carbons are opposite each other. It is the most stable of the staggered conformers. axial bond a bond of the chair form of cyclohexane that is perpendicular to the plane in which the chair is drawn (an up-down bond). banana bonds the bonds in small rings that are slightly bent as a result of orbitals overlapping at an angle rather than overlapping head-on. boat conformation the conformation of cyclohexane that roughly resembles a boat. boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure. chair conformation the conformation of cyclohexane that roughly resembles a chair. It is the most stable conformation of cyclohexane. cis fused two rings fused together in such a way that if the second ring were considered to be two substituents of the first ring, the two substituents would be on the same side of the first ring. cis isomer the isomer with both hydrogens on the same side of the double bond. cis-trans stereoisomers geometric (or E , Z ) isomers. (geometric isomers) common name non-systematic nomenclature. conformation the three-dimensional shape of a molecule at a given instant.
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58 Chapter 2 conformational analysis the investigation of various conformations of a compound and their relative stabilities. conformers different conformations of a molecule. constitutional isomers molecules that have the same molecular formula but differ in the way the (structural isomers) atoms are connected. cycloalkane an alkane with its carbon chain arranged in a closed ring. 1,3-diaxial interaction the interaction between an axial substituent and the other two axial substituents on the same side of the cyclohexane ring. dipole-dipole interaction an interaction between the dipole of one molecule and the dipole of another. eclipsed conformation a conformation in which the bonds on adjacent carbons are parallel to each other as viewed looking down the carbon-carbon bond. equatorial bond a bond of the chair form of cyclohexane that juts out from the ring in approximately the same plane that contains the chair.
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2010 for the course CHE 118A 118a taught by Professor Kent during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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03%20Ch02 - CHAPTER 2 An Introduction to Organic Compounds:...

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