04%20Ch03 - CHAPTER 3 Alkenes: Structure, Nomenclature, and...

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83 CHAPTER 3 Alkenes: Structure, Nomenclature, and an Introduction to Reactivity Thermodynamics and Kinetics Important Terms acyclic noncyclic. addition reaction a reaction in which atoms or groups are added to the reactant. alkene a hydrocarbon that contains a double bond. allyl group 22 CH CHCH  allylic carbon an sp 3 carbon adjacent to a vinyl carbon. Arrhenius equation relates the rate constant of a reaction to the energy of activation and to the temperature at which the reaction is carried out a / () . ER T kA e = cis isomer the isomer with the hydrogens on the same side of the double bond. degree of unsaturation the number of π bonds and/or rings in a hydrocarbon. E isomer the isomer with the high-priority groups on opposite sides of the double bond. electrophile an electron deficient atom or molecule. electrophilic addition an addition reaction in which the first species that adds to the reactant is an reaction electrophile. endergonic reaction a reaction with a positive G °. endothermic reaction a reaction with a positive H °. enthalpy the heat given off (– H °) or the heat absorbed (+ H °) during the course of a reaction. entropy a measure of the freedom of motion in a system. exergonic reaction a reaction with a negative G °. exothermic reaction a reaction with a negative H °. experimental energy of a measure of the approximate energy barrier to a reaction. activation (It is approximate because it does not contain an entropy component.) ( E a = H RT ) first-order rate constant the rate constant of a first-order reaction.
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84 Chapter 3 first-order reaction a reaction whose rate is dependent on the concentration of one reactant. (unimolecular reaction) free energy of activation the true energy barrier to a reaction. ( G ) functional group the center of reactivity of a molecule. geometric isomers cis-trans (or E , Z ) isomers. (cis-trans stereoisomers) Gibbs free the difference between the free energy content of the products and the free energy energy change content of the reactants at equilibrium under standard conditions (1M, 25 °C, 1 atm). intermediate a species formed during a reaction that is not the final product of the reaction. kinetics the field of chemistry that deals with the rates of chemical reactions. kinetic stability is indicated by G . If G is large, the compound is kinetically stable (not very reactive). If G is small, the compound is kinetically unstable (is very reactive). Le Châtelier's principle states that if an equilibrium is disturbed, the components of the equilibrium will adjust in a way that will offset the disturbance. mechanism of the reaction a description of the step-by-step process by which reactants are changed into products.
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2010 for the course CHE 118A 118a taught by Professor Kent during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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04%20Ch03 - CHAPTER 3 Alkenes: Structure, Nomenclature, and...

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