14%20Ch08 - CHAPTER 8 Substitution Reactions of Alkyl...

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253 CHAPTER 8 Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides Important Terms aprotic solvent a solvent that does not have a hydrogen bonded to an oxygen or to a nitrogen; some aprotic solvents are polar, others are polar. back-side attack nucleophilic attack on the side of the carbon opposite to the side bonded to the leaving group. base a substance that accepts a proton. basicity describes the tendency of a compound to share its electrons with a proton. bifunctional molecule a molecule with two functional groups. bimolecular describes a process involving two molecules. complete racemization formation of a pair of enantiomers in equal amounts. dielectric constant a measure of how well a solvent can insulate opposite charges from one another. elimination reaction a reaction that removes atoms or groups from the reactant to form a π bond. first-order reaction a reaction whose rate is dependent on the concentration of one reactant. intermolecular reaction a reaction that takes place between two molecules. intimate ion pair results when the covalent bond that joined the cation and anion has broken, but the cation and anion are still next to each other. intramolecular reaction a reaction that takes place within a molecule. inversion of configuration turning the carbon inside out like an umbrella so that the resulting product has a configuration opposite to that of the reactant. ion-dipole interaction the interaction between an ion and the dipole of a molecule. kinetics the field of chemistry that deals with the rates of chemical reactions. leaving group the group that is displaced in a substitution reaction. nucleophile an electron-rich atom or molecule. nucleophilicity a measure of how readily an atom or molecule with a lone pair attacks an atom. nucleophilic substitution a reaction in which a nucleophile substitutes for an atom or group. reaction partial racemization formation of a pair of enantiomers in unequal amounts.
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254 Chapter 8 protic solvent a solvent that has a hydrogen bonded to an oxygen or to a nitrogen. rate constant describes how difficult it is to overcome the energy barrier of a reaction. rate law the equation that shows the relationship between the rate of a reaction and the concentration of the reactants. second-order reaction a reaction whose rate is dependent on the concentration of two reactants. S N 1 reaction a unimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction. S N 2 reaction a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction. solvent-separated ion pair results when the cation and anion are separated by one or more solvent molecules. solvolysis reaction with the solvent. steric effects effects due to the fact that groups occupy a certain volume of space. steric hindrance refers to bulky groups at the site of a reaction that make it difficult for the reactants to approach each other.
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14%20Ch08 - CHAPTER 8 Substitution Reactions of Alkyl...

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