17%20Ch11 - CHAPTER 11 Radicals Reactions of Alkanes...

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337 CHAPTER 11 Radicals • Reactions of Alkanes Important Terms alkane a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds. allylic radical a compound with an unpaired electron on an allylic carbon. benzylic radical a compound with an unpaired electron on a benzylic carbon. combustion a reaction with oxygen that takes place at high temperatures and converts alkanes to carbon dioxide and water. free radical an atom or a molecule with an unpaired electron. halogenation the reaction of an alkane with a halogen. heterolytic bond cleavage breaking a bond with the result that both bonding electrons stay with one (heterolysis) the atoms. homolytic bond cleavage breaking a bond with the result that each of the atoms gets one of the (homolysis) bonding electrons. initiation step the step in which radicals are created and or the step in which the radical needed for the first propagating step is created. paraffin an older word for alkanes, which means “little affinity.” peroxide effect causes the electrophile in an addition reaction of HBr to be a bromine radical instead of a proton. primary alkyl radical an alkyl radical with the unpaired electron on a primary carbon. propagation step in the first of a pair of propagation steps, a radical (or an electrophile or a nucleophile) reacts to produce another radical (or an electrophile or a nucleophile) that reacts in the second propagation step to produce the radical (or the electrophile or the nucleophile) that was the reactant in the first propagation step. radical (often called a an atom or a molecule with an unpaired electron. free radical) radical addition reaction an addition reaction in which the first species that adds is a radical. radical chain reaction a reaction in which radicals are formed and react in repeating propagating steps. radical inhibitor a compound that traps radicals. radical initiator a compound that creates radicals.
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338 Chapter 11 radical substitution a substitution reaction that has a radical intermediate. reaction reactivity-selectivity the greater the reactivity of a species, the less selective it will be. principle saturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon that contains only single bonds (is saturated with hydrogen). secondary alkyl radical an alkyl radical with the unpaired electron on a secondary carbon. termination step two radicals combine to produce a molecule in which all the electrons are paired. tertiary alkyl radical an alkyl radical with the unpaired electron on a tertiary carbon.
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Chapter 11 339 Solutions to Problems 1. Cl 2 2 Cl hv initiation } Cl + + Cl propagation HCl + Cl 2 Cl + Cl Cl + Cl 2 Cl + Cl + termination 2. Cl 2 2 Cl hv Cl + CH 4 CH 3 + HCl CH 3 + Cl 2 CH 3 Cl + Cl Cl + CH 3 Cl CH 2 Cl + HCl CH 2 Cl + Cl 2 CH 2 Cl 2 + Cl Cl + CH 2 Cl 2 CHCl 2 + HCl CHCl 2 + Cl 2 CHCl 3 + Cl Cl + CHCl 3 CCl 3 + HCl CCl 3 + Cl 2 CCl 4 + Cl Cl + CCl 3 CCl 4 •• 3.
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2010 for the course CHE 118A 118a taught by Professor Kent during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.

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17%20Ch11 - CHAPTER 11 Radicals Reactions of Alkanes...

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