22%20Ch16 - CHAPTER 16 Carbonyl Compounds I: Nucleophilic...

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461 CHAPTER 16 Carbonyl Compounds I: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Important Terms acid anhydride O C R O C R O acyl adenylate a carboxylic acid derivative with AMP as the leaving group. acyl group O C R acyl halide O C R Cl O C R Br or acyl phosphate a carboxylic acid derivative with a phosphate leaving group. acyl pyrophosphate a carboxylic acid derivative with a pyrophosphate leaving group. acyl transfer reaction a reaction that transfers an acyl substituent from one group to another. alcoholysis reaction with an alcohol that converts one compound into two compounds. amide O C R NH 2 O C R NHR O C R NR 2 amino acid an α -amino carboxylic acid. aminolysis reaction with an amine that converts one compound into two compounds. biosynthesis synthesis in a biological system. α -carbon a carbon adjacent to a carbonyl group. carbonyl carbon the carbon of a carbonyl group. carbonyl compound a compound that contains a carbonyl group. carbonyl group a carbon doubly bonded to an oxygen. carbonyl oxygen the oxygen of a carbonyl group. carboxyl group O C OH or COOH CO 2 H or
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462 Chapter 16 carboxylic acid O C R OH carboxylic acid derivative a compound that is hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid. carboxyl oxygen the single-bonded oxygen of a carboxylic acid or ester. catalyst a species that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the reaction. detergent a salt of a sulfonic acid. ester O C R OR fat a triester of glycerol that exists as a solid at room temperature. fatty acid a long-chain carboxylic acid. Fischer esterification reaction of a carboxylic acid with excess alcohol and an acid catalyst. reaction Gabriel synthesis a method used to convert an alkyl halide into a primary amine. hydrolysis reaction with water that converts one compound into two compounds. hydrophobic interactions the attractive forces of hydrocarbon chains in water. imide a compound with two acyl groups bonded to a nitrogen. lactam a cyclic amide. lactone a cyclic ester. micelle a spherical aggregation of molecules, each with a long hydrophobic tail and a polar head, arranged so the polar head points to the outside of the sphere. mixed anhydride an acid anhydride with two different R groups. neurotransmitter a compound that transmits nerve impulses across the synapses between nerve cells. nitrile a compound that contains a carbon-nitrogen triple bond. Ν RC nucleophilic acyl a reaction in which a group bonded to an acyl group is substituted by substitution reaction another group.
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Chapter 16 463 oil a triester of glycerol that exists as a liquid at room temperature. phosphoanhydride bond the bond holding two phosphoric acid molecules together. Ritter reaction the reaction of a nitrile with a secondary or tertiary alcohol to form a secondary amine.
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22%20Ch16 - CHAPTER 16 Carbonyl Compounds I: Nucleophilic...

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